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Chapter 41 - med surg
Terms in this set (40)
A nurse is caring for an adult patient diagnosed with a back strain. What health education should the nurse provide to this patient?
A) Avoid lifting more than one-third of body weight without assistance.
B) Focus on using back muscles efficiently when lifting heavy objects.
C) Lift objects while holding the object a safe distance from the body.
D) Tighten the abdominal muscles and lock the knees when lifting of an object.
A nurse is discussing conservative management of tendonitis with a patient. Which of the following may be an effective approach to managing tendonitis?
A) Weight reduction
B) Use of oral opioid analgesics
C) Intermittent application of ice and heat
D) Passive range of motion exercises
A patient presents at a clinic complaining of pain in his heel so bad that it inhibits his ability to walk. The patient is subsequently diagnosed with plantar fasciitis. This patients plan of care should include what intervention?
A) Wrapping the affected area in lambs wool or gauze to relieve pressure
B) Gently stretching the foot and the Achilles tendon C) Wearing open-toed shoes at all times
D) Applying topical analgesic ointment to plantar surface each morning
A nurse is providing an educational class to a group of older adults at a community senior center. In an effort to prevent osteoporosis, the nurse should encourage participants to ensure that they consume the recommended adequate intake of what nutrients? Select all that apply.
A) Vitamin B12
E) Vitamin D
A nurse is providing a class on osteoporosis at the local seniors center. Which of the following
statements related to osteoporosis is most accurate?
A) Osteoporosis is categorized as a disease of the elderly.
B) A nonmodifiable risk factor for osteoporosis is a persons level of activity.
C) Secondary osteoporosis occurs in women after menopause.
D) Slow discontinuation of corticosteroid therapy can halt the progression of the osteoporosis.
A nurse is teaching a patient with osteomalacia about the role of diet. What would be the best choice for breakfast for a patient with osteomalacia?
A) Cereal with milk, a scrambled egg, and grapefruit
B) Poached eggs with sausage and toast
C) Waffles with fresh strawberries and powdered sugar
D) A bagel topped with butter and jam with a side dish of grapes
A nurse is caring for a patient with Pagets disease and is reviewing the patients most recent laboratory values. Which of the following values is most characteristic of Pagets disease?
A) An elevated level of parathyroid hormone and low calcitonin levels
B) A low serum alkaline phosphatase level and a low serum calcium level
C) An elevated serum alkaline phosphatase level and a normal serum calcium level
D) An elevated calcitonin level and low levels of parathyroid hormone
Which of the following patients should the nurse recognize as being at the highest risk for the development of osteomyelitis?
A) A middle-age adult who takes ibuprofen daily for rheumatoid arthritis
B) An elderly patient with an infected pressure ulcer in the sacral area
C) A 17-year-old football player who had orthopedic surgery 6 weeks prior
D) An infant diagnosed with jaundice
A nurse is caring for a patient with a bone tumor. The nurse is providing education to help the patient reduce the risk for pathologic fractures. What should the nurse teach the patient?
A) Strive to achieve maximum weight-bearing capabilities.
B) Gradually strengthen the affected muscles through weight training.
C) Support the affected extremity with external supports such as splints.
D) Limit reliance on assistive devices in order to build strength.
A patient presents at a clinic complaining of back pain that goes all the way down the back of the leg to the foot. The nurse should document the presence of what type of pain?
A patient tells the nurse that he has pain and numbness to his thumb, first finger, and second finger of the right hand. The nurse discovers that the patient is employed as an auto mechanic, and that the pain is increased while working. This may indicate that the patient could possibly have what health problem?
A) Carpel tunnel syndrome
C) Impingement syndrome
D) Dupuytrens contracture
A nurse is assessing a patient who reports a throbbing, burning sensation in the right foot. The patient states that the pain is worst during the day but notes that the pain is relieved with rest. The nurse should recognize the signs and symptoms of what health problem?
A) Mortons neuroma
C) Hallux valgus
A nurse is reviewing the pathophysiology that may underlie a patients decreased bone density. What hormone should the nurse identify as inhibiting bone resorption and promoting bone formation?
B) Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
A patient is undergoing diagnostic testing for osteomalacia. Which of the following laboratory results is most suggestive of this diagnosis?
A) High chloride, calcium, and magnesium
B) High parathyroid and calcitonin levels
C) Low serum calcium and magnesium levels
D) Low serum calcium and low phosphorus level
An 80-year-old man in a long-term care facility has a chronic leg ulcer and states that the area has become increasingly painful in recent days. The nurse notes that the site is now swollen and warm to the touch. The patient should undergo diagnostic testing for what health problem?
D) Septic arthritis
A patient has returned to the unit after undergoing limb-sparing surgery to remove a metastatic bone tumor. The nurse providing postoperative care in the days following surgery assesses for what complication from surgery?
A) Deficient fluid volume
B) Delayed wound healing
D) Pathologic fractures
A nurse is caring for a patient who is 12 hours postoperative following foot surgery. The nurse assesses the presence of edema in the foot. What nursing measure will the nurse implement to control the edema?
A) Elevate the foot on several pillows.
B) Apply warm compresses intermittently to the surgical area.
C) Administer a loop diuretic as ordered.
D) Increase circulation through frequent ambulation.
A patient with diabetes is attending a class on the prevention of associated diseases. What action should the patient perform to reduce the risk of osteomyelitis?
A) Increase calcium and vitamin intake.
B) Perform meticulous foot care.
C) Exercise 3 to 4 times weekly for at least 30 minutes.
D) Take corticosteroids as ordered.
A nurse is planning the care of an older adult patient with osteomalacia. What action should the nurse recommend in order to promote vitamin D synthesis?
A) Ensuring adequate exposure to sunlight
B) Eating a low-purine diet
C) Performing cardiovascular exercise while avoiding weight-bearing exercises
D) Taking thyroid supplements as ordered
A patient presents to a clinic complaining of a leg ulcer that isnt healing; subsequent diagnostic testing suggests osteomyelitis. The nurse is aware that the most common pathogen to cause osteomyelitis is what?
A) Staphylococcus aureus
D) Escherichia coli
A nurse is providing care for a patient who has a recent diagnosis of Pagets disease. When planning this patients nursing care, interventions should address what nursing diagnoses? Select all that apply.
A) Impaired Physical Mobility
B) Acute Pain
C) Disturbed Auditory Sensory Perception
D) Risk for Injury
E) Risk for Unstable Blood Glucose
A, B, C, D
A nurse is caring for a patient who is being assessed following complaints of severe and persistent low back pain. The patient is scheduled for diagnostic testing in the morning. Which of the following are appropriate diagnostic tests for assessing low back pain? that apply.
A) Computed tomography (CT)
C) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
D) Ultrasound E) X-ray
A, C, D, E
A nurse is reviewing the care of a patient who has a long history of lower back pain that has not responded to conservative treatment measures. The nurse should anticipate the administration of what drug?
A nurse is collaborating with the physical therapist to plan the care of a patient with osteomyelitis. What principle should guide the management of activity and mobility in this patient?
A) Stress on the weakened bone must be avoided.
B) Increased heart rate enhances perfusion and bone healing.
C) Bed rest results in improved outcomes in patients with osteomyelitis.
D) Maintenance of baseline ADLs is the primary goal during osteomyelitis treatment.
A 32-year-old patient comes to the clinic complaining of shoulder tenderness, pain, and limited movement. Upon assessment the nurse finds edema. An MRI shows hemorrhage of the rotator cuff tendons and the patient is diagnosed with impingement syndrome. What action should the nurse recommend in order to promote healing?
A) Support the affected arm on pillows at night.
B) Take prescribed corticosteroids as ordered.
C) Put the shoulder through its full range of motion 3 times daily.
D) Keep the affected arm in a sling for 2 to 4 weeks.
A patient presents at the clinic with complaints of morning numbness, cramping, and stiffness in his fourth and fifth fingers. What disease process should the nurse suspect?
B) A ganglion
C) Carpal tunnel syndrome
D) Dupuytrens disease
A patients electronic health record notes that the patient has hallux valgus. What signs and symptoms would the nurse expect this patient to manifest?
A) Deviation of a great toe laterally
B) Abnormal flexion of the great toe
C) An exaggerated arch of the foot
D) Fusion of the toe joints
An older adult womans current medication regimen includes alendronate (Fosamax). What outcome would indicate successful therapy?
A) Increased bone mass
B) Resolution of infection
C) Relief of bone pain
D) Absence of tumor spread
A nurse is caring for a patient who is being treated in the hospital for a spontaneous vertebral fracture related to osteoporosis. The nurse should address the nursing diagnosis of Acute Pain Related to Fracture by implementing what intervention?
A) Maintenance of high Fowlers positioning whenever possible
B) Intermittent application of heat to the patients back
C) Use of a pressure-reducing mattress
D) Passive range of motion exercises
A patient has been admitted to the hospital with a spontaneous vertebral fracture related to osteoporosis. Which of the following nursing diagnoses must be addressed in the plan of care?
A) Risk for Aspiration Related to Vertebral Fracture
B) Constipation Related to Vertebral Fracture
C) Impaired Swallowing Related to Vertebral Fracture
D) Decreased Cardiac Output Related to Vertebral Fracture
A nursing educator is reviewing the risk factors for osteoporosis with a group of recent graduates. What risk factor of the following should the educator describe?
A) Recurrent infections and prolonged use of NSAIDs
B) High alcohol intake and low body mass index
C) Small frame, female gender, and Caucasian ethnicity
D) Male gender, diabetes, and high protein intake
A nurse is providing care for a patient who has osteomalacia. What major goal will guide the choice of medical and nursing interventions?
A) Maintenance of skin integrity
B) Prevention of bone metastasis
C) Maintenance of adequate levels of activated vitamin D
D) Maintenance of adequate parathyroid hormone function
A patient has been admitted to the medical unit for the treatment of Pagets disease. When reviewing the medication administration record, the nurse should anticipate what medications? Select all that apply.
C) Alkaline phosphatase
D) Calcium gluconate
The health care team is caring for a patient with osteomalacia. It has been determined that the osteomalacia is caused by malabsorption. What is the usual treatment for osteomalacia caused by malabsorption?
A) Supplemental calcium and increased doses of vitamin D
B) Exogenous parathyroid hormone and multivitamins
C) Colony-stimulating factors and calcitonin
D) Supplemental potassium and pancreatic enzymes
A patient with diabetes has been diagnosed with osteomyelitis. The nurse notes that the patients right foot is pale and mottled, cool to touch, with a capillary refill of greater than 3 seconds. The nurse should suspect what type of osteomyelitis?
A) Hematogenous osteomyelitis
B) Osteomyelitis with vascular insufficiency
C) Contiguous-focus osteomyelitis
D) Osteomyelitis with muscular deterioratio
An orthopedic nurse is caring for a patient who is postoperative day one following foot surgery. What nursing intervention should be included in the patients subsequent care?
A) Dressing changes should not be performed unless there are clear signs of infection.
B) The surgical site can be soaked in warm bath water for up to 5 minutes.
C) The surgical site should be cleansed with hydrogen peroxide once daily.
D) The foot should be elevated in order to prevent edema.
A nurse is providing discharge teaching for a patient who underwent foot surgery. The nurse is collaborating with the occupational therapist and discussing the use of assistive devices. On what variables does the choice of assistive devices primarily depend?
A) Patients general condition, balance, and weight-bearing prescription
B) Patients general condition, strength, and gender
C) Patients motivation, age, and weight-bearing prescription
D) Patients occupation, motivation, and age
A patient has come to the clinic for a routine annual physical. The nurse practitioner notes a palpable, painless projection of bone at the patients shoulder. The projection appears to be at the distal end of the humerus. The nurse should suspect the presence of which of the following?
D) Pagets disease
An elderly female with osteoporosis has been hospitalized. Prior to discharge, when teaching the patient, the nurse should include information about which major complication of osteoporosis?
A) Bone fracture
B) Loss of estrogen
C) Negative calcium balance
D) Dowagers hump
An older adult patient sought care for the treatment of a swollen, painful knee joint. Diagnostic imaging
and culturing of synovial fluid resulted in a diagnosis of septic arthritis. The nurse should prioritize
which of the following aspects of care?
A) Administration of oral and IV corticosteroids as ordered
B) Prevention of falls and pathologic fractures
C) Maintenance of adequate serum levels of vitamin D
D) Intravenous administration of antibiotics
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