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SHS 311 Exam 3
Terms in this set (68)
What is psychophysics?
The study of sensory perception of auditory stimuli
What is psychoacoustics?
The study of the perception of sound
What are the perceptual parameters of sound?
Pitch & Loudness
What are physical parameters of sound?
Intensity & Frequency
We can study the resonance with psychoacoustics: T or F
We can study loudness perception with psychoacoustics: T or F
We can study localization of sound in space with psychoacoustics: T or F
We can study bone conductivity with psychoacoustics: T or F
We can study the influence of hearing loss with psychiacoustics : T or F
We can study absolute sensitivity of the ear: T or F
What is the difference between detection and discrimination tasks?
Comparing between the stimulus and no stimulus
Comparing between two stimuli with differing degrees
(10 dB vs 20 dB tones)
When detection and discrimination tasks are set up as described in the notes, are these objective or subjective tasks?
What are the key differences between the MAP and MAF curves?
With MAP, the listener is using headphones to listen to the stimuli while MAF plays the stimuli through a speaker 1 mete away from listener
(MAP only measures one ear)
What is temporal integration?
The effect of duration on threshold; as duration increases, threshold decreases until it reaches 500 ms
Until what duration do we see the temporal integration effect?
As duration increases, what is the approximate effect on threshold? (in dB)
threshold decreases with a 10 dB difference
When considering the S+N and N distributions, how is sensitivity represented?
Sensitivity is represented by how far apart N & the S+N are from each other. The closer they are to each other, the harder it will be to distinguish them from one another.
How is the listener's bias represented?
Listeners bias is represented by the two graphs listed in the lecture where they would be more generous when making a decision or more lenient.
How can a change of the listener's bias be represented on our distributions if they are more conservative or more liberal?
What's the relationship between correction rejections and false positives?
- Where the signal is not present and the listener agrees that it is not
-Where the signal is not present but the listener believes that it is
Both tally to 100% or 1
What's the relationship between hits and misses?
- Where the signal is present and the listener says it is
- Where the signal is present but the listener doesn't think it is
Both tally to 100% or 1
Describe how forced choice methods work:
The listener is given a choice between two options: whether the signal is present or not. This requires them to make a guess.
What are advantages of forced choice methods?
- Quick & reliable
- Independent of response bias
What are the two ways to evaluate loudness?
Loudness Scaling & Loudness Matching
What is the unit for loudness level, how is it defined?
- Loudness level
- adjusting the level intensity of a tone until it matches that of a 1000 Hz tone
When looking at an equal loudness contour, describe what one of the curves (or contours) means:
We are judging it as being equally as loud as 1000 Hz tone
What is the unit for loudness, how it is defined?
- loudness of a 1-kHz, 40-dB-SPL tone
How would you determine the loudness of a sound?
- play a standard 1 kHz comparison tone and indicate the loudness by assigning it a number
Which of the following is considered to be free of listener bias?
A.) 2-interval, 2- Alternative Forced Choice
B.) Method of Limits
C.) Yes-No Detection Task
D.) None of the Above
When discussing signal detection theory, which of the following terms refers to how far apart the signal and the signal+noise distributions are?
Temporal integration means that thresholds are ___________________________ for a shorter tone
MAP curves reflect minimum audibility for thresholds in the soundfield: T or F
FALSE; MAP thresholds are not measured in the soundfield; MAF thresholds are. Thus, this statement is false.
Pitch and frequency are the same thing: T or F
FALSE; Pitch is a perceptual characteristic. Frequency is not. Thus, this is false.
The difference between the MAP and MAF curves in the 1000-6000 range (notably the big dip in the MAF) is due to:
A.) The inclusions of the ear canal resonances in the MAP curves
B.) The inclusion of ear canal resonances in the MAF measurement
C.) None of the Above
Equal loudness contours (loudness matching) use the units of:
Loudness recruitment is a concern with:
Sensorineural Hearing Loss which enpomasses cochlear hearing loss
A loudness scaling procedure will use the unit of:
The listener hears a 60 phons tone. Suddenly, that loudness level increases to 80 phons. What happens to the listener's perception of loudness?
it doubles twice
What is the relationship between loudness and intensity?
What is the relationship between frequency and pitch?
What is the relationship between pitch and intensity?
Pitch is dependent on intensity in that low-frequency sounds are perceived as lower in pitch as intensity increases.
What is the relationship between pitch and duration?
The longer the duration of a sound, the more accurate pitch perception.
Frequency difference limens are greatest at low frequencies: T or F
FALSE; think of frequency difference limens as a just noticeable difference, the higher the frequency the more noticeable the difference
What is the unit of pitch and how it is defined?
Mels; 1/1000th of the pitch of a 1000 Hz tone at 40 phons
IN GENERAL, If a masker and signal are closer together in frequency, it will be _____________________ to mask the signal than if they are further apart in frequency.
Masking patterns are _______________ at higher levels, indicating a greater spread of excitation at higher levels.
Is the relationship between frequency and pitch a 1:1 relationship?
What is being measured with difference limens for frequency?
two pure-tones with slightly different frequencies. Listener judges which one has the higher pitch.
What is the effect of frequency for difference limens for frequency?
Absolute change in frequency (Hz)
What is the effect of level?
- Tones below 2000 Hz: Pitch decreases with increasing level
- Tones above 4000 Hz: Pitch increases with increasing level
What is the difference between height and chroma?
Height = what octave or pitch register is it in
Chroma = the name of the note
What are our limitations in being able to pitch match across octaves?
You can only double the frequency per Octave
What are these limitations likely due to?
What is Timbre, consonance & dissonance?
- Timbre: The subjective quality that differentiates two sounds with the same pitch, loudness, and duration.
- Consonance: Notes paired together which sound "pleasant"
- Dissonance: Notes paired together which sound "unpleasant"
How are psychophysical tuning curves measured?
How are masking patterns measured?
Masking patterns are steeper on the _________
What is temporal processing and what are some examples of how we use it?
What is it: the use of time information present in the acoustic signal
Examples of how we use the temporal information within speech
- Taking advantage of longer duration signals (temporal integration)
- The use of the temporal fine structure of the auditory structure
Is gap detection better at high or low frequencies?
Are auditory filter wider at high or low frequencies?
If the modulation rate is faster, then a greater modulation depth is needed to be able to detect modulation: T or F
What would a gap detection experiment look like?
Describe the overall pattern of results that would be seen:
What would an experiment look like?
Describe the overall pattern of results that are seen with gap detection:
Loudness is the perceptual correlate of what?
Pitch is the perceptual correlate of what?
Temporal Integration impacts threshold until:
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