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Psychology: Chapter 7 Section 1, Psychology - Chapter 7 Section 2, Psychology - Chapter 7 Section 3
Terms in this set (119)
a state of awareness, including a person's feelings, sensations, ideas, and perceptions
what is an altered state of consciousness??
different levels of awareness
what is sleep characterized by??
unresponsiveness to the environment and limited physical mobility
what happens as you begin to fall asleep??
- body temperature declines, pulse rate drops, breathing grows slow
- even eyes close and brain emits alpha waves
body may twitch, eyes roll, brief visual images may flash across mind
about how long does stage 1 of sleep last?? what happens during this stage??
this phase lasts about 10 minutes
- pulse slows and muscles relax
- breathing becomes uneven and brain waves grow irregular
stage 1 of sleep is marked by the presence of....??
what indicates when you've entered stage 2??
brain waves occasionally shift from low-amplitude, high-frequency waves to high-amplitude, low-frequency waves
how long does it take to shift to stage 3 of sleep??
what's the deepest state of sleep?? what is this indicated by??
- indication: large, regular delta waves -- occurring more than 50% the time
in what stage of sleep can things not be remembered??
person spends average of _____% of sleep time in Stages I to IV
what is REM sleep??
stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements, a high level of brain activity, deep relaxation of the muscles, and dreaming
list some things that happen in REM sleep....
- pulse rate and breathing become irregular
- levels of adrenal and sexual hormones in blood rise
- face or fingers twitch and large muscles in your arms and legs are paralyzed
- brain sends out waves closely resembling those of someone fully awake
NERM (non-REM or quiet sleep) is called this due to....??
absence of rapid eye movement accompanied by slower pattern of brain waves
REM sleep lasts about _____ (early at night) to _____ (late at night) minutes and you then retrace the descent to Stage IV
REM cycle occurs how often??
every 90 minutes
what happens each time period of stage IV sleep decreases??
length of REM sleep increases (until you wake up)
define circadian rhythm....
the rhythm of activity and inactivity lasting approximately one day
true or false // circadian rhythm doesn't operate when normal day and night cues are removed
humans have a circadian cycle of approximately _____ hours
what controls our sleep cycles??
environment and 24-hour day
what is jet lag??
when circadian rhythms don't match external clock time
what may sleep disorders interfere with?? what may they endanger??
interfere: quality of life and personal health
endanger: public safety b/c of their role in industrial or traffic accidents
failure to get enough sleep at night in order to feel rested the next day
what are some causes for insomnia??
- overuse of alcohol or drugs
what is sleep apnea??
a sleep disorder in which a person has trouble breathing while sleeping
what is a common symptom of sleep apnea??
episodes of a certain kind of snoring (caused by blockage of breathing passage) that last 10 to 15 seconds
ends suddenly with physical movement of entire body
what are some things that cause sleep apnea??
enlarged tonsils, repeated infections in throat or middle ear, or obesity
how does a snoring episode (in regards to sleep apnea) end??
when low levels of oxygen or high levels of carbon dioxide in blood trigger breathing reflexes
how can sleep apnea affect daily life??
may feel listless, sleepy, and irritable
a condition characterized by suddenly falling asleep or feeling very sleepy during the day
what are some symptoms of narcolepsy??
- unusual sleep and dream patterns (i.e. dreamlike hallucinations or feeling of temporary paralysis)
- sleep attacks throughout day
accompanied by brief periods of REM sleep
- difficulties in area of work, leisure, interpersonal relations
- prone to accidents
define nightmares.... when do they occur?? what happens when you wake up??
occurs: in dream phase of REM sleep
waking up: have vivid memory of movielike dream
define night terrors.... when do they usually occur and for how long??
sleep disruptions that occur during Stage IV of sleep, involving screaming, panic, or confusion
- usually within hour after going to bed
- lasts 5-25 minutes
what may night terrors involve??
- screaming, sweating, confusion, and rapid heart rate
- may suddenly awake from sleep or have persistent fear occurring at night
usually have no memory of night terrors
define sleep walking.... who does this usually affect??
walking or carrying out behaviors while asleep
- in adults and children
- linked to stress, fatigue, and use of sedative medicines
- may be inherited
- in children → usually outgrown
define sleep talking... when does it occur??
common sleep disruption
occurs: in REM or NREM sleep
mental activity that takes place during sleep
what happens as night wears on??
dreams become longer and more vivid and dramatic (especially ones occurring in REM sleep)
which dream are people most likely to remember??
last dream of the night
can rarely recall more than 15 minutes of dream
what is often incorporated into dreams??
- everyday activities
- strenuous recreational activities or passive events
- occurring in commonplace settings
what do dreams correspond to??
a realistic time scale
when does dream interpretation date back to??
what did sigmund freud believe??
no matter how simple or mundane, dreams may contain clues to thoughts the dreamer is afraid to acknowledge in their waking hours
Inuit people of North America also believed this
what did nathaniel kleitman believe about dream interpretation??
believed dreams may have no function
dreaming → byproduct of stimulating certain brain cells
side note: he discovered REM sleep
besides nathaniel kleitman, what did others argue about dream interpretation??
- common experience of paralysis in a dream means brain cells that inhibit muscle activity were randomly stimulated
- problem-solving theory about dreaming
- dreaming allows people a chance to review and address problems of day
what did francis crick believe??
dreams are the brain's way of "unlearning" or removing unneeded memories
what does daydreaming require??
low level of awareness and involves fantasizing or dreaming while awake
when does daydreaming occur??
when bored or in situations requiring little attention
what do some psychologists believe about daydreams??
they help us control our emotions
SHAREABLE LINK FOR CHAPTER 7 SECTION 1 NOTES
what is hypnosis??
a state of consciousness resulting from a narrowed focus of attention and characterized by heightened suggestibility
what can happen during hypnosis??
can be made conscious of things they're unaware of and unaware of things they usually notice
hypnosis ______ our perception
what is a hypnotic trance??
when participants become highly receptive and responsive to certain internal and external stimuli
able to focus attention on one tiny aspect of reality and ignore all other inputs
how is a trance induced?? how long does it take to reach this state??
slowly persuading participant to relax and lose interest in external distractions
hypnosis requires what kind of environment and why??
environment of trust because participant with rich imagination can become very susceptible to hypnotist's suggestions
a relationship between a hypnotist and participant involves what??
what did theodore barber (1965) believe??
hypnosis is not a special state of consciousness but rather the result of suggestibility
what did ernest hilgard (1986) believe??
there's something special about hypnotic state
consciousness includes many different aspects that may become separated or dissociated during hypnosis
- known as neodissociation theory
what does the neodissociation theory include??
"hidden observer" → portion of personality watching and reporting what happens to hypnotized person
what did sarbin & coe (1972, 1979) believe??
hypnotized people behave the way they do because they've accepted the role as a hypnotized subject
- explains importance of suggestibility in the hypnotic induction
what does hypnosis reveal??
- people have potential abilities they do not use
- reveal clients problems or gain insight into their lives
what does posthypnotic suggestion mean??
hypnotists can suggest things for their participants to remember or forget when trance is over
what can happen with memories under posthypnotic suggestion?? what else can be done??
- memory can be aided or enhanced
- changing unwanted behaviors (i.e. smoking and overeating)
what is hypnotic analgesia??
a reduction of pain after undergoing hypnosis
reduce their anxiety and encourage relaxation → perception of pain is reduced
why to hypnotherapists use hypnosis??
to allow their patients to think of their problems in a new way
process of learning to control bodily states with the help of specialized machines
what does biofeedback help with??
control variety of physiological responses
(i.e. brain waves -EEG-, heart rate, blood pressure, skin temperature, and sweat-gland activity)
what is the basic principle of biofeedback??
feedback makes learning possible
how does biofeedback work??
- uses machines to tell people about very subtle, moment-to-moment changes in the body
- can experiment with different thoughts and feelings while watching how each affect their bodies
- learn to change physiological processes
what did thomas budzynski (and others) do??
helped teach people to relax the frontalis muscle in forehead, reducing tension headaches
focusing of attention to clear one's mind and produce relaxation
what are the 3 types of meditation??
describe transcendental meditation
involves mental repetition of a mantra (usually sanskrit sound)
describe mindfulness meditation
- developed from buddhist tradition
- focuses on present moment
describe breath meditation
- concentration on one's respiration
- inhaling and exhaling
what do researchers generally agree on??
most people can benefit from systematic relaxation meditation provides
what are benefits of meditation??
can help lower blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration rate
SHAREABLE LINK TO CHAPTER 7 SECTION 2 NOTES
define psychoactive drugs... what do they include??
chemicals that affect the nervous system and result in altered consciousness
includes: stimulants, depressants, hallucinogens
how do drugs work??
- carried by the blood and taken up in target tissues in various parts of the body
- drug molecules act like neurotransmitters hooking onto end of nerve cells (neurons) sending out their own chemical messages
dried up leaves and flowers in indian hemp (cannabis sativa), producing an altered state of consciousness when smoked or ingested
what is the active ingredient in marijuana??
how do the effects of marijuana vary??
from person to person, setting it's taken, users past experience
what are some pleasant experiences from marijuana??
- most sensory experiences → augmented
- may feel elated or world is meaningful; things have extraordinary importance
what are some unpleasant experiences from marijuana??
- negative feelings are heightened
- psychological disturbances in people previously unstable
marijuana is not physically addictive but _____ addictive
may become dependent on it
true or false // marijuana is less damaging than cigarettes
false; MORE damaging
tar and other chemicals drawn deep and held in lungs
- hinders lung function
what does marijuana disrupt??
makes difficult to carry out mental and physical tasks
perceptions with no direct external cause
what are hallucinations caused by??
hypnosis, meditation, certain drugs, drug withdrawal, psychological breakdown
- can also occur under normal conditions (i.e. when dreaming or sleep deprived)
what may produce sensations and perceptions??
periods of high emotion, concentration, or fatigue
what did seigel (1977) believe??
reactions in drugs from one person to the next are very similar due to the way it affects the brain
define hallucinogens (psychedelics)
drugs that often produce hallucinations
found in plants throughout the world
what do hallucinogens do??
create loss of contact with reality
- create false body image; loss of self, dreamlike fantasies, and hallucinations
what is the best known and most potent hallucinogen??
LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)
it's also one of the most powerful drugs
potent psychedelic drug producing distortions of perception and thought
what is the average dose of LSD and what does it produce??
- produces experimental state called a
, lasting 6 to 14 hours
what happens during a trip??
perceptions = often intense or rapidly changing
what can affect the experience of LSD??
expectations, mood, beliefs, and circumstances of taking LSD
what may someone experience with hallucinogens??
- hallucinatory progressions where simple geometric forms evolve to surrealistic impossibilities
- distortions where familiar objects become almost unrecognizable
- distortions of time
what else may someone experience with hallucinogens??
- senses intermingle
- dissociation of self
- a single stimulus may become focus of attention for hours
- impairs thinking
- panic reactions
what do opiates (usually called narcotics) include??
opium, morphine, and heroine
what do opiates produce??
analgesia or pain reduction, euphoria, constipation
what can regular use of opiates lead to??
overdose results in loss of breathing → can die from respiratory failure
what is the most widely used and abused substance??
what is the immediate effect of alcohol??
general loosening of inhibitions
lack social restraint or self-control
besides loosening of inhibitions, what else can alcohol cause??
slurred speech, blurred vision, and impaired judgement & memory
what is alcohol considered??
what do the effects of alcohol depend on??
amount & frequency of drinking, and the drinkers body weight
what are some possibilities from alcohol abuse??
permanent brain and liver damage and a change in personality
besides alcohol, what plays into the early effects of drinking??
who are drug abusers??
people who regularly use illegal or excessively use legal drugs
doesn't occur immediately or automatically → can turn into an addiction
what are some reasons people abuse drugs?? what do they all have in common??
avoid boredom, fit in with peers, gain self-confidence, forget about problems, relax, or feel good
all changing how people feel
what are some risks associated with drug abuse?? what is the greatest??
death, injuries, accidents
greatest risk → loss of control
what does treatment for alcohol abuse involve??
1. must admit they have a problem
2. must enter treatment program or therapy
3. must remain drug free
what are people seeking treatment for alcohol abuse encouraged to do??
join support groups and be able to fight temptation
many suffer from relapse but support groups help prevent this
CHAPTER 7 SECTION 3 SHAREABLE LINK FOR NOTES
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