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Old immigrants

Protestants from Northwestern Europe who came to the US from 1800-1880

New immigrants

People from southern and eastern Europe who came to the US to escape poverty or persecution


The poorest accomodations of a steamship where immigrants traveled to get to the US

Benevolent societies

Religious and nonreligious organizations formed to help immigrants in sickness, unemployment, and death

Denis Kearney

Leader of the Workingmen's party,

Chinese Exclusion Act

Denied citizenship in the US to people born in China and prohibited the immigration of Chinese laborers.

Immigration Restriction League

Anti-immigration organization founded in 1894 by wealthy Bostonians that sought to impose literacy tests on all immigrants

Grover Ceveland

President who vetoed anti-immigrations legislations and stating that they were illiberal


Large, multistory buildings

Mass Transit

Forms of public transportation such as electric commuter trains, subways and trolley cars that expanded cities outward.


Residential neighborhoods on the outskirts of a city

Nouveau Riche

New class of wealthy city dwellers. French term meaning newly rich

Conspicuous Consumption

Behavior labeled by social scientist Thorstein Veblen where the newly rich spent their money freely to show off their wealth.


Poorly built apartment buildings where immigrants lived in NYC.

Settlement Houses

Community service centers established by reformers to confront the problem of urban poverty.

Elisha Otis

Developed a mechanized elevator

Jane Addams

Woman at the front of the settlement house movement. Her goals were to provide educational and cultural opportunities to the poor and to improve their living conditions. Founded Hull House.

Janie Porter Barrett

African American teacher who founded one of the 1st African American Settlement houses: the Locust Street Settlements

Social Gospel

Calls for people to apply Christian principles to address social problems

Caroline Bartlett

Organized People's Church in Kalamazoo, Michigan according to the social gospel and became a unitarian minister

Compulsory Education laws

Laws requiring parents to send children to school

Yellow journalism

Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers


French word meaning light play. Variety show that featured a wide selection of short performances.


New form of music performed in vaudeville shows created by African American artists in the 1890s

John Dewey

Education reformer and philosopher who opened a Laboratory school at the University of Chicago that emphasized art, history and science.

Frederick Law Olmsted

Landscape Architect who designed Central Park in 1857

City Beautiful movement

Movement inspired by the completion of Central Park. Called for inclusion of parks and attractive boulevards in city designs.

Walter Camp

Football player at Yale in the 1780s who established many of the rules and principles of the game.

James Naismith

Physical Educator who invented the game of basketball in 1891 while trying to find something to occupy of group of unruly students.

Edwin Booth

Premier actor of 1860s and 70s who portrayed Shakespeare's heroes

Scott Joplin

King of ragtime, piano player

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