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Federal Southern Theatre, it was a workshop for writers and actors intended to try to develop new material for the theatre
The African Company
this theatre was putting on plays in a downtown Manhattan theatre 40 years before Lincoln ended slavery
efers to the alleged practice by the ruling classes of deliberately dividing people by nationality, race, ethnicity, or religion, so as to distract them from possible class warfare. It is seen as a divide and conquer strategy used by the ruling classes to prevent the working class from uniting against them
What Acronym did A.N.T. stand for?
- African Negro Theatre
-'ant' because all of its members were to work like ants and be really hard workers
Ira Aldridge, Paul Robeson, Charles Gilpin, Anita Bush, Eugene Elmer, Lester Walton
Urban Arts Core
this theatre wanted to promote blacks to be liberators, artistic and expressive as opposed to typical acting model that is seen in the white theatre
director of the Lafayette Players
-dancer, actres, theatrical administrator
-formed the _________(her name) Players of Harlem, the first professional Black dramatic non-musical theatre ensemble in the US
-co-star of "The Crimson Skul" (1921) (1st all black Western)
wrote "The Electronic ******" and was a part of the New Lafayette Theatre (founded by MacBeth)
-think "Ethnic Notions"
-played Emporer Jones by Eugene O'Neal
-first black to play Shakespear's Othello on Broadway
-believed in communism
The African Company
-first know black theatre company
-William Henry Brown and James Hewlitt were it's founders
The Lafayette Players
-first professional black dramatc company in America
-Aim: "to give vent to our talent and to prove to everybody who was willing to look, to watch, to listenb, that we were as good at drama as anybody else."
-first stage appearence: Lincoln Theatre in Harlem in 1915
Federal Theatre Project
-part of the economic recovery program (New Deal), set up in 23 cities
-provided employment, training, apprenticeship, and experience to 100s of black actors, directors, theatre technicians, and playwrights
-objective: racial justice
-random scating allowed for integration, conditioned audiences to be receptive
American Negro theatre
-founded by Abram Hill and Frederick O'Neal in 1940
-took the place of the Federal Theatre Project; both founders were involved in FTB
-actors were required to work hard like "ants"
Negro Ensemble Company
-founded in 1967 by Robert Hooks, Douglas Turner Ward, and Gerald Krone
-criticisms: Negro in title, white founder, white funding, white playwrights
National Black Theatre
-founded in 1968
-theatre as a space to discover, explore, nurture, articulate,adress and help thoose of African decent born in America
-paticipants fully able to express UNITY(Umoja), RESPECT(), and culturla values of SLEF-LOVE
Free Southern Theatre
-founded by Gil Moses
-aim: to stimulate creative and reflective thought among Negroes in MISSISSIPPI and other southern states
Urban Arts Corps
-founded by Vinnette Carroll in 1967 to foster participation by minority groups in all aspects of the theatrical arts, specialized in works of African American writers and composers
She was the founder of Urban Arts Corps and the first woman director on Broadway with her staging of "Don't Bother me, I Can't Cope"
Black Arts Repertory
-theatre created by Amiri Baraka, which sought to create a strong "black aesthetic" in Americana Theatre, revolutionary black theatre
Ward's intention for NEC
challenged the bourgeois parochialism of American theatre, questioning the very limited definition of the community served by the theatre, and cited the need for the creation of an autonomous professional Black theatre
-Magic circle is drawn around a culture, and literature develops historically within a limited orbit of language, reference, allusion, beliefs, transmitted and shared traditions
-fits with Umoja (unity)
Ma Rainey's Black Bottom
only one of August Wilson's plays that does not take place in Pittsburg
King Hedly II
- in this play written by Wilson the characters from the previous play (Seven Guitars (70's)) reappear
founded on the belief that blacks and whites have separate values, histories, intellectual traditions and lifestyles and therefore that in reality there are two separate Americas
-conceptual or aesthetic return to Africa in recognition of the African roots
-aim: to realize the black community as one common descendent
-Harold Cruse (the negro can not identifiy with America w/o defined cultural identity)
Baraka called out people who made "skin flicks"
-refers to the practice of deliberately dividing people by nationality, race, ethnicity, or religion, to distract people from class welfare; devide and conquer strategy
strong indetification of a group of individuals w/ a political entity defined in national terms
-Color Blind (no reference to race)
-Conceptual (consciously makes a statement by casting an actor in a role they haven't traditionaly played)
-Societal (casting ethnic roles reflecting the way they participate in society)
-Cross-cultural (entire world of the play is shifted and transplanted into another culture)
Faith(Imani), Unity(Umoja), Self-Determination(Kujichagalia), Cooperative Economics(Ujamaa), Creativity(Kuumba), and Collective Work(Ujima), Purpose-building and developing community(NIa)
fat, pitch-black, obedient, singing, docile, protective of the white family, used as a defence of slavery, never evoked sexual attention so she wouldn't becoma a threat to slavery, portrayed as dominant member of her own family
-Zip _____: urban version, stuttering, buffoon, attempting to mimic whites
-Sambo: simple docile, laughing man, living the life of a child (appears content)
-characterizations of black children as savage beings
-cartoons of black children being eaten by alligators were frequent
-black woman as lustful by nature
-seductive, alluring, worldly, beguiling, tempting, and lewd
-promiscuous and predatory
-Hint of truth: light-skinned women became the willing concubines of wealthy white southerners (placage)
-dates back to the 1950's
-Black character given magic powers (Hattie McDonnel: 1st to win Academy award in a role like this but not allowed to attend the award ceremony w/ the rest)
-they're w/o interior lives, they materialize only to rescue the white characters
-famous khoikhoi woman who was exhibited as a freak show attraction in the 19th century in Europe by the name Hottentot Venus
- real name: Freda McDonald
-she was an entertainer, performed on stage, screen, and recordings
-worked undercover during French Resistance during WWII
-civil rights activists
-he was an active participant in the Civil Rights struggle
-wrote "Nobody Knows My Name" which explored white-black relations
-wrote "The Fire Next Time" (1963)
William Wells Brown
-escaped slaved who wrote "The Escape: or Leap for Freedom" in which he presented some aspects of plantation life including a slave wedding (performed by jumping the broom)
-author and American playwright
-wrote "Clara's Ole Man"
"The Taking of Miss Janie"
"Goin a Buffalo"
-won an Obie for "The Famous Miss Marie" and "In New England Winter"
-she joined ANT in 1940 in Harlem
-became director of ANT in 1941
-wrote "Trouble in Mind" ((Off-broadway)received an Obie in 1956)
-formal religious or social occassionusually led by a designated authroity figure such as a priest (ex. wedding)
-follows a sequence of orders/events
-acting out of an established prescribed procedure
-achieved through repetition of patterns/symbols/ values
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