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can challenge lower court rulings (circuit and supreme courts rule over district courts)
large group of people selected to weigh evidence to decide whether to have a trial (16-23 people)
when a person is put in front of judge and they tell you what you were arrested for
-charged/ bail/ bond
terms for release until court; require cash collateral (put up money that insures you'll come back to court)
courts usurp authority and make law rather than interpret constitution (otherwise known as judicial activism)
for crimes against society-standard of guilt: must be proven guilty beyond a reasonable doubt
Dred Scott Case
1857-overturned all previous agreements on slavery, set that slaves have no rights and slaves are property, slaves cannot invoke the courts
court packing bill
FDR threatens to increase size of supreme court in 1936, but instead he decides to back off
Miranda vs Arizona
can't arrest without reading out your rights (right to attorney, right to remain silent, etc)
Munn vs Illinois
1876-strengthened the ICC to regulate commerce and set maximum rates (like railroads)
system under which a president submits the name of a judicial candidate to senators from the candidate's state before submitting it for formal senate approval
Federal Intelligence Security Act
FISA- court is authorized to secretly wiretap people suspected of spying against the USA
a written statement settling forth the legal arguments, relevant facts, and precedents supporting one side of a case
"friend of the court" briefs that come form individuals, interest groups, or government agencies
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