38 terms

100 things every student should know in us history

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emancipation proclamation
Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
siege at vicksburg
Union army's six-week blockade of Vicksburg that led the city to surrender during the Civil War.
freedmans bureau
The bureau's focus was to provide food, medical care, administer justice, manage abandoned and confiscated property, regulate labor, and establish schools.
13th amendment
This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slaveowners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States.
sharecropping
system in which landowners leased a few acres of land to farmworkers in return for a portion of their crops
compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
homestead act
1862 - provided free land in the west as long as the person would settle there and make improvements in five years
trancontinental railroad
a railroad that crosses an entire continent, such as the one completed in 1869 linking the east and west coasts of north america
dawes act
An act that removed Indian land from tribal possesion, redivided it, and distributed it among individual Indian families. Designed to break tribal mentalities and promote individualism.
buffalo
large shaggy-haired brown bison of North American plains
interstate commerce act
Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) - monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices
barbed wire
strong wire with barbs at regular intervals used to prevent passage
bessemer process
A way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply by blasting hot air through melted iron to quickly remove impurities.
social darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
ellis island
Immigration processing center that open in New York Harbor in 1892
robber barons
People who'd built fortunes by swindling investors and taxpayers, and bribing officials
jane addams
the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes
haymarket square riot
A demonstration of striking laborers in Chicago in 1886 that turned violent, killing a dozen people and injuring over a hundred.
tammany hall
a political organization within the Democratic Party in New York city (late 1800's and early 1900's) seeking political control by corruption and bossism
marbury v. madison
The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, (the Judiciary Act of 1789).
wiskey rebellion
1794 protest over a tax on liqur made and sold in the US
virginia and kentucky resolution
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
louisiana purchase
territory in western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million
battle of new orleans
Jackson led a battle that occurred when British troops attacked U.S. soldiers in New Orleans on January 8, 1815; the War of 1812 had officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in December, 1814, but word had not yet reached the U.S.
washingtons farwell address
Washington chose not to run for third term,
Not to get involved in European affairs
Not to make permanent alliance in foreign affairs (Treaty w/ France)
Avoid sectionalism (North-South rivalries)
Not to form political parties
missouri compromise
an agreement in 1820 between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new territories
trail of tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
hudson river school
the first coherent school of American art
cotton gin
a machine that separates the seeds from raw cotton fibers
john deere
United States industrialist who manufactured plows suitable for working the prairie soil (1804-1886)
tariff of abominations
Tariff passed by Congress in 1828 that favored manufacturing in the North and was hated by the South
frederick douglas
Famous black abolitionist that escaped from slavery who would later right a narrative of his own life that described his life. He promoted the abolitionist cause and drew the line where evil must be denounced.
seneca falls convention
Women's rights convention that results in a declaration of sentiments but not much else
uncle toms cabin
written by harriet beecher stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england's view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.
fugitive slave act
Law that provided for harsh treatment for escaped slaves and for those who helped them
john brown
abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (1800-1858)
election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.
battle of gettysburg
a battle of the American Civil War (1863)