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EES 1 review sheet
Terms in this set (40)
What is geology
The scientific study of the earth
How is geology related to other sciences
What is science. What isn't science
Limited to the natural world
Does not explain supernatural situations
Does not deal with ethical values
What are the assumptions of science
There is a physical universe that exists and can be explored by sense
The physical universe is orderly
What is uniformitariansim? What is not?
"Present is the key to the past"- can tell what happened in the past by what is happening today
-does not mean rate of natural processes have to be constant
What are some components of and problems with the simplified "scientific method?
Human reasoning is not always purely inductive
Scientist can make mistakes
What is a mineral
A substance (element or chemical compound) which meets
1. Naturally formed
2. A solid
3. Has a chemical formula
4. Has a crystalline structure
How does minerals crystal structure affect its external morphology and physical properties?
The bonds affect the shape of the mineral and can control how hard the mineral is or how easily it is separated
What is the mineralogical basis and benefits for fluoridating municipal water supplies?
Can reduce tooth decay
What is the basic building block of the silicate minerals
The silica tetrahedron one silica and 4 oxygen
What are the basic types of silicate crystal structures
What are the 8 most important rock forming silicates? How are dark colored silicates different from light colored silicates
Don't Contain Iron
Muscovite mica (sheet structure)
Olivine. (Most common)
What are the 5 most important rock-forming non-silicates
What is asbestos? What are the main asbestos minerals? Which type is heavily mined?
A group of minerals that form tiny, flexible fibers
Account for 1200-1500 deaths per year
White is the most commonly used
What are the effects of asbestos on human health? Which settings pose the most risk for lethal exposure? Which type of asbestos is the most dangerous?
Can get into lungs and cause various lung diseases
Settings that pose risk: mining plumbing and construction
Is the longest running and most expensive mass tort in US history
200-250 billion dollars
Blue asbestos is most dangerous
What is a rock
An aggravate of minerals and or a mass of glass
What are the three main types of rocks, and the processes involved in their formation
Igneous - formed by solidification (cooling) of molten rock material
Sedimentary- deposited by wind water or ice
Metamorphic- rocks which have been changed by the effects of heat and pressure
How are intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks different in terms of their texture?(grain size)
Extrusive rocks are more smooth
How are igneous rocks classified?
By their silica content
Less silica = more dark (iron)
What are some common varieties of igneous rock? (Volcanic and plutonic equivalents for various compositions)
The various types of igneous intrusions
Dikes- tabular intrusions that cut across structures in adjacent rocks
Plutons- irregular or blow shape intrusions ranging from tens meters to tens km
Batholith- vast areas intruded by numerous plutons
Why are some platonic rocks now exposed at the surface?
Can be uplifted to surface
What is the most abundant rock type at the earths surface: igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary?
How are sedimentary rocks classified? Major examples of each
By grain size (small to large)
Mud- mudstone and shale
Sand- sandstone (verticals cliffs)
Gravel- conglomerate and breccia
Rock salt- evaporation of saline water
Gypsum- evaporation of saline water
Limestone- precipitation of calcium carbonate
What are the effects of heat and pressure on rocks buried deep within the earth?
What are few metamorphic rock types and what original rock types are they made from?
Gneiss- wide variety
What is foliage on and how does it form?
Mineral grains align
What are some direct and indirect methods used to study the earths deep interior?
Study of earthquake waves
What are the most abundant chemical elements in Earth?
Iron and oxygen
How do we know the composition of the earth as a whole?
What are some characteristics of the The layers?
-solid mostly Fe+Ni
- liquid mostly Fe + Ni
-currents of molten iron produces magnetic field
-83 % of earths volume
-most is solid rock, only melts at uppermost par
-periotite FE + Mg minerals is most of mental
- totally solid but convection occurs
- SI+ Al rich minerals
- compositionally homogeneous
- youngest layer
Why is the inner core solid while the the cooler outer core is liquid?
There is more pressure in inner core
Which layer in the earth is responsible for the earths magnetic field?
What is mantle convection and what causes it?
Plumes pushing up
Where is the mantle partially molten?
What is the lithosphere and how is it defined and what is it made of?
Includes continental crust, oceanic crust and uppermost part of the mantle
- behaves rigidly
How many major tectonic plates are there and how are boundaries defined?
13 major ones
Defined as zones of seismic activity
What are three types of plate boundaries and their motions?
What is some geologic evidence of plate boundaries?
Super continental breakup
Fit of continents
Location of glaciers
What are hotspots and how are they related to mantle plumes?
Large volcanic centers produced by long lived partial melting in the mantle
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