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62 terms

Chapter 11 Gibson Review

STUDY
PLAY
one group that is NOT grossly under-represented among judges is
men
state courts do NOT have
appointed jurisdiction
the texas judiciary, particularly in urban areas, has become overloaded by
civil cases
the federal judiciary has ordered sweeping improvements in
the state prison system
more than ____ percent of all litigation is based on state laws or local ordinances
95
civil lawsuits involve conflict
between two or more parties
most criminal activities are defined and their punishments established in the
penal code
the lowest courts in texas are the
justice of the peace and municipal courts
the authority of a court to try or resolve a civil lawsuit or a felony prosecution being heard for the first time is known as
original jurisdiction
the existence of two courts at the highest level of the state judiciary is referred to as a
bifurcated court system
unlike federal judges, who are appointed by the president to life terms, state judges in Texas, except for those on municipal courts, are
elected to limited terms in partisan elections
county level courts do NOT include
probate courts
state level courts do NOT include
the court of criminal appeals
constitutional county courts hear cases on appeal from
justice of the peace courts and probate courts
justice of the peace courts
have original civil and criminal jurisdiction, and function as small claims courts
most municipal courts and all justice of the peace courts are
not courts of record
the least numerous court at the county level is the
justice of the peace court
statutory county courts
have inconsistent jurisdictions because each one was set up to deal with specific local problems
the primary trial court in texas is the
district court
district court judges
hear cases involving divorce, slander and election disputes
a plea bargain results when
the defendant negotiates a reduction in his sentence with the procecutors
in district court operations the state pays the basic salary of the judge while the county pays
the cost of courtrooms, operating expenses, and a supplement to the judge's state pay
the texas supreme court does NOT
appoint the board of law examiners
the court of criminal appeals
hears only criminal cases
a nine-member court with final appellate jurisdiction over civil cases is the texas
supreme court
____ are not part of the texas judicial system
state clerks
grand juries
are each made up of twelve people selected by a district judge
district and county clerks make up eligible jurors lists from
texas driver's licenses and DPS identification cards
in order to convict a defendant of a felony in texas, the jury decision must be
unanimous
civil litigants and criminal defendants may NOT waive their right to a jury trial, even if they believe it would be to their advantage to have their case decided by a judge, if they are accused of
capital murder
cases reach the texas supreme court primarily on
petitions for review
at the appellate level, rather than juries hearing cases, judges
review the decisions and procedures of the lower courts to determine conformance to constitutional and statutory law
the texas supreme court acts on petitions for writs of mandamus, which are
orders for a lower court or another public official to take a certain action
establishment-oriented justices, usually elected with the support of the state's largest law firms, tend NOT to view their judicial role as one of
judicial activist
during the early part of the 1970s, the legislature enacted the____ act, a move that encouraged injured parties to take their grievances to court
deceptive trade practice-consumer protection
what action did the texas state commission on judicial conduct take in regard to texas supreme court justices C.L. Ray and William Kilgarlin?
public sanctions against both
in 1987, the texas supreme court received negative publicity when their court upheld
an $11 billion judgment awarded to Pennzoil, a company that had given large donations to several justices
in 1986, chief justice hill announced that he supported the
merit selection plan of appointments because of excessive campaign contributions
in 1998, the republican party won ____ seats on the texas supreme court
the majority of the
in 1989, hispanics and african americans made up 33 percent of the texas population and held ___ of district judgeships
11.2 percent
governor ___ appointed the first hispanic to the texas supreme court
mark white
governor ___ appointed the first hispanic to the texas court of criminal appeals
bill clements
which of the following was appointed U.S. attorny general after serving on the texas supreme court and as texas secretary of state?
Raul A. Gonzalez
Governor ____ appointed the first african american to the texas court of criminal appeals
bill clements
governor ___ appointed the first woman to serve as a state district judge in texas
james v. allred
the first woman elected to the texas supreme court was
rose spector
according to the text, the composition of courts ____ because judges bring to the courts their own values, personal philosophies and life experiences
makes a difference
texas and __ other states chose their judges in partisan elections
8
under both the U.S. and texas constitutions, a person charged with a crime is
presumed innocent until the state can prove guilt beyond a reasonable doubt to a judge or jury
over time, the U.S. supreme court has gained compliance with the law by applying the fourteenth amendment
principles of equal protection and due process
under the ___ ruling, police are required by the courts to inform us of our rights
miranda
in criminal cases in which the jury cannot reach a unanimous verdict, the judge must
declare a mistrial
___ is considered the most serious crime in texas
capital murder
in 1972, the U.S. supreme court halted executions in all the states by
striking down all death penalty laws as unconstitutional
___ is a first degree felony
aggravated sexual assault
people sentenced to life in prison can be considered for parole after serving ___years
40
the texas ___ must try to balance the constitutional rights of convicts against the public welfare
court of criminal appeals
throughout much of history, the texas ___ has been blamed with excessive concern for legal technicalities that benefit convicted criminals
court of criminal appeals
in ___, the texas supreme court ordered basic changes in the financing of public k-12 education in order to provide more equity between rich and poor school districts
the 1989 edgewood case
in the texas supreme court's public education finance decision, the court held that school finance laws violated the constitutional requirement for an ___ educational system
efficient
in 1994, the texas supreme court held that parents
are required to comply with all state public education rules
in 1996, the texas supreme court ruled against ___, a gay GOP group that was denied a booth at the republicans state convention
log cabin republicans