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one group that is NOT grossly under-represented among judges is


state courts do NOT have

appointed jurisdiction

the texas judiciary, particularly in urban areas, has become overloaded by

civil cases

the federal judiciary has ordered sweeping improvements in

the state prison system

more than ____ percent of all litigation is based on state laws or local ordinances


civil lawsuits involve conflict

between two or more parties

most criminal activities are defined and their punishments established in the

penal code

the lowest courts in texas are the

justice of the peace and municipal courts

the authority of a court to try or resolve a civil lawsuit or a felony prosecution being heard for the first time is known as

original jurisdiction

the existence of two courts at the highest level of the state judiciary is referred to as a

bifurcated court system

unlike federal judges, who are appointed by the president to life terms, state judges in Texas, except for those on municipal courts, are

elected to limited terms in partisan elections

county level courts do NOT include

probate courts

state level courts do NOT include

the court of criminal appeals

constitutional county courts hear cases on appeal from

justice of the peace courts and probate courts

justice of the peace courts

have original civil and criminal jurisdiction, and function as small claims courts

most municipal courts and all justice of the peace courts are

not courts of record

the least numerous court at the county level is the

justice of the peace court

statutory county courts

have inconsistent jurisdictions because each one was set up to deal with specific local problems

the primary trial court in texas is the

district court

district court judges

hear cases involving divorce, slander and election disputes

a plea bargain results when

the defendant negotiates a reduction in his sentence with the procecutors

in district court operations the state pays the basic salary of the judge while the county pays

the cost of courtrooms, operating expenses, and a supplement to the judge's state pay

the texas supreme court does NOT

appoint the board of law examiners

the court of criminal appeals

hears only criminal cases

a nine-member court with final appellate jurisdiction over civil cases is the texas

supreme court

____ are not part of the texas judicial system

state clerks

grand juries

are each made up of twelve people selected by a district judge

district and county clerks make up eligible jurors lists from

texas driver's licenses and DPS identification cards

in order to convict a defendant of a felony in texas, the jury decision must be


civil litigants and criminal defendants may NOT waive their right to a jury trial, even if they believe it would be to their advantage to have their case decided by a judge, if they are accused of

capital murder

cases reach the texas supreme court primarily on

petitions for review

at the appellate level, rather than juries hearing cases, judges

review the decisions and procedures of the lower courts to determine conformance to constitutional and statutory law

the texas supreme court acts on petitions for writs of mandamus, which are

orders for a lower court or another public official to take a certain action

establishment-oriented justices, usually elected with the support of the state's largest law firms, tend NOT to view their judicial role as one of

judicial activist

during the early part of the 1970s, the legislature enacted the____ act, a move that encouraged injured parties to take their grievances to court

deceptive trade practice-consumer protection

what action did the texas state commission on judicial conduct take in regard to texas supreme court justices C.L. Ray and William Kilgarlin?

public sanctions against both

in 1987, the texas supreme court received negative publicity when their court upheld

an $11 billion judgment awarded to Pennzoil, a company that had given large donations to several justices

in 1986, chief justice hill announced that he supported the

merit selection plan of appointments because of excessive campaign contributions

in 1998, the republican party won ____ seats on the texas supreme court

the majority of the

in 1989, hispanics and african americans made up 33 percent of the texas population and held ___ of district judgeships

11.2 percent

governor ___ appointed the first hispanic to the texas supreme court

mark white

governor ___ appointed the first hispanic to the texas court of criminal appeals

bill clements

which of the following was appointed U.S. attorny general after serving on the texas supreme court and as texas secretary of state?

Raul A. Gonzalez

Governor ____ appointed the first african american to the texas court of criminal appeals

bill clements

governor ___ appointed the first woman to serve as a state district judge in texas

james v. allred

the first woman elected to the texas supreme court was

rose spector

according to the text, the composition of courts ____ because judges bring to the courts their own values, personal philosophies and life experiences

makes a difference

texas and __ other states chose their judges in partisan elections


under both the U.S. and texas constitutions, a person charged with a crime is

presumed innocent until the state can prove guilt beyond a reasonable doubt to a judge or jury

over time, the U.S. supreme court has gained compliance with the law by applying the fourteenth amendment

principles of equal protection and due process

under the ___ ruling, police are required by the courts to inform us of our rights


in criminal cases in which the jury cannot reach a unanimous verdict, the judge must

declare a mistrial

___ is considered the most serious crime in texas

capital murder

in 1972, the U.S. supreme court halted executions in all the states by

striking down all death penalty laws as unconstitutional

___ is a first degree felony

aggravated sexual assault

people sentenced to life in prison can be considered for parole after serving ___years


the texas ___ must try to balance the constitutional rights of convicts against the public welfare

court of criminal appeals

throughout much of history, the texas ___ has been blamed with excessive concern for legal technicalities that benefit convicted criminals

court of criminal appeals

in ___, the texas supreme court ordered basic changes in the financing of public k-12 education in order to provide more equity between rich and poor school districts

the 1989 edgewood case

in the texas supreme court's public education finance decision, the court held that school finance laws violated the constitutional requirement for an ___ educational system


in 1994, the texas supreme court held that parents

are required to comply with all state public education rules

in 1996, the texas supreme court ruled against ___, a gay GOP group that was denied a booth at the republicans state convention

log cabin republicans

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