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Rad Pro Ch. 4
Terms in this set (34)
absorbed dose (D)
The amount of energy per unit mass absorbed by an irradiated object (e.g., the patient's body tissue). This absorbed energy is responsible for any biologic damage resulting from the tissues being exposed to radiation. The gray (Gy) is the SI unit of this radiation quantity.
SI quantity that can be used to express radiation concentration transferred to a point, which may be at the surface of a patient's or radiographer's body. Air kerma is kinetic energy released in a unit mass (kilogram) of air and is expressed in metric units of joule per kilogram (J/kg).
collective effective dose equivalent (ColEfD)
Designated for use in the description of population or group exposure from low doses of different sources of ionizing radiation.
committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE)
A measure of the probabilistic health effect on an individual as a result of intake of radioactive material into the body.
Basic SI unit of electric charge. It represents the quantity of electrical charge flowing past a point in a circuit in 1 second when an electrical current of 1 ampere is used.
coulombs per kilogram (C/kg)
SI unit of radia- tion exposure: 1 coulomb per kilogram (C/kg) of air equals 1 SI unit of exposure, or 1 / (2.58 × 10−4) R = 3.88 × 103 R. C/kg (traditional unit, roentgen) unit is used for x-ray equipment cali- bration because x-ray output intensity is mea- sured directly with an ionization chamber.
deep dose equivalent (DDE)
External whole-body exposure at a tissue depth of 1 cm (1000 mg/cm2).
dose area product (DAP)
The sum total of air kerma over the exposed area of the patient's surface.
early deterministic somatic effects
Effects of ionizing radiation that appear within minutes, hours, days, or weeks of the time of exposure; also called acute effects.
effective dose (EfD)
Quantity that is used for radiation protection purposes to provide a measure of the overall risk of exposure to humans from ionizing radiation.
equivalent dose (EqD)
A radiation quantity used for radiation protection purposes when a person receives exposure from various types of ionizing radiation.
The amount of ionizing radiation that may strike an object such as the human body when in the vicinity of a radiation source. The total electrical charge per unit mass that x-ray and gamma ray photons with energies up to 3 MeV generate in air only; the amount of ionizing radiation that may strike an object, such as the human body, when in the vicinity of a radiation source; measured in coulombs per kilogram (C/kg) or roentgens (R)
genetic, or heritable, effects gray (Gy)
Biologic effects of ionizing radia-
tion or other agents on generations yet unborn.
Also known as hereditary effects.
International System of Units (SI)
System of units that makes possible an interchange of units among all branches of science throughout the world.
linear energy transfer (LET)
The average of energy deposited by ionizing radiation in an object per unit length of track as it passes through the object. It is expressed in units of keV/μm.
late deterministic somatic effects
Nonmalignant late effects directly related to the dose received that occur months or years after a high- level radiation exposure received in a short amount of time.
late stochastic effects
Late effects that do not have a threshold, that occur in an arbitrary or probabilistic manner, whose severity does not depend on dose, and that occur months or years after high-level and possibly after low-level radiation exposure.
Radiation exposure received by radiation workers in the course of exercising their professional responsibilities.
radiation weighting factor (W sub R)
A dimension- less factor (a multiplier) that was chosen for radiation protection purposes to account for dif- ferences in biologic impact among various types of ionizing radiations. This factor places risks associated with biologic effects on a common scale.
The SI unit of measure for the radia- tion quantities, equivalent dose (EqD and effec- tive dose (EfD). It is the product of the absorbed dose and the radiation weighting factor.
Biologic damage experienced by living organisms (such as humans) as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation.
surface integral dose (SID)
The total amount of radiant energy transferred by ionizing radiation to the human body during a radiation exposure.
total effective dose equivalent (TEDE)
A par- ticularly useful dose monitor for occupationally exposed personnel such as nuclear medicine tech- nologists and interventional radiologists. TEDE is the sum of effective dose equivalent from exter- nal radiation exposures and the committed effec- tive dose equivalent (CEDE) from internal sources. It is designed to take into account all possible causes of radiation exposure.
tissue weighting factor (W sub T)
A value that
denotes the percentage of the summed stochastic (cancer plus genetic) risk stemming from irradia- tion of tissue (T) to the all-inclusive risk, when the entire body is irradiated in a uniform fashion.
T/F When x-rays were discovered, a charge was being passed through a pear-shaped, partial vacuum discharge tube. Light was seen emanating from a piece of paper coated with calcium tungstate that lay on a bench several feet away
Thomas A. Edison invented the:
Short-term somatic effects of radiation include which of the following?
1. nausea and fatigue
2. blood and intestinal disorders
3. diffuse redness of the skin and shedding of its outer layer
1,2, and 3
Which of the following units are not SI units?
2. Coulombs per kilogram, gray, sievert
3. rad and rem
1 and 3 only
Who discovered x-rays on November 8, 1895?
Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen
In the diagnostic radiology energy range (which includes mammography) from 23 to 150 kVp, which of the following tissues possesses the greatest ability to absorb radiant energy through the process of photoelectric absorption?
Which of the following effects must be measured to determine the total amount of radiation exposure in a specific volume of dry air under standard conditions of pressure and temperature (760 mm Hg or 1 atmosphere at sea level and 22 degrees C)?
Quantity of ionization
The quantity 45 rem equals _____ mSv.
One millirem equals _____ rem.
Which of the following is the SI unit of radiation exposure?
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