Exam 3

The internal feature of bone that makes it simultaneously strong and lightweight is the:

a) presence of cartilage.
b) latticework structure of spongy bone.
c) pattern of osteons.
d) areolar connective tissue in the central cavity.
e) arrangement of collagenous fibers.
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The primary role of epithelial tissue in the stomach is a) housing blood vessels and nerves. b) Secretion of substances for chemical digestion. c) mixing and propulsion of foodstuffs. d) regulation of contractionb) Secretion of substances for chemical digestion.Select all that apply regarding the integumentary system. a) It is comprised (made of) of the body's largest organ, the skin. b) It is analogous to the cutaneous membrane. c) It is comprised of the dermal, epidermal. d) While technically not part of the integument, the subcutaneous layer provides support to the integumentary system. e) It is comprised of epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous tissue.All are correctThe dermal epithelium is comprised of a) Only simple, keratinized squamous cells. b) Layers of squamous, keratinized epithelial cells c) Protective, dendritic cells d) Sensory cells responsive to physical and chemical stimulus. e) Highly organized vascularization (blood vessels) f) Areolar tissuec, d, e, fTrue or false: The apical epidermal integument is composed of simple cuboidal cells containing hemidesmosomes attached to the basement membrane which separates the epithelial epidermis from the connective dermisFalseTrue or false: The epithelial cells of the dermal integument receive nutrients from capillary exchange within the connective tissue of the dermal papillae.falseSelect all that apply regarding melanocytes. a) The expression levels of melanocytes attribute to the differences of skin color among various 'races'. b) Provide protection to dermal and epidermal DNA against harmful ultraviolet radiation. c) Are contained within areolar connective tissue of the epidermal integument. d) Convey information regarding pressure and temperature to nervous tissue.a) The expression levels of melanocytes attribute to the differences of skin color among various 'races'.True or false: Adipose tissue provides storage of high energy triglycerides within the epidermal layer of the integument.FalseTrue or false: Skeletal muscle within the dermal layer control the movement of hair follicles.falseSelect all that apply regarding the function of integument. a) Protection against xenobiotics. b) Metabolism of vitamin C c) Temperature regulation d) Electrolyte homeostasis.a, c, dInsulin is released following meals by pancreatic beta cells in response to high blood glucose levels. As a hydrophilic hormone, insulin binds to it's cognate tyrosine receptor kinase and initiates an intracellular signaling cascade. Select all that apply to insulin induced intracellular signaling that results in bringing blood glucose levels down to homeostatic levels. a) Increased cAMP levels resulting in increased glycogenolysis. b) Increased IP3 levels resulting in increased lipolysis. c) A series of phosphorylations resulting in increased insertions of plasma membrane glucose transporters. d) A series of phosphorylations resulting in increased silencer activity which when bound to DNA increases rate of glucose transporter gene expressionc) A series of phosphorylations resulting in increased insertions of plasma membrane glucose transporters.What are the directional definitions for these? Anterior- Posterior- Superficial Deep-anterior - towards the front of the body posterior - towards the back of the body superficial - more external deep - more internalWhat are the directional definitions for these? medial - proximal - lateral - distal -medial - toward the midline of the body proximal - closet to point of attachment to trunk lateral - away from the midline of the body distal - farther away from point of attachment to trunkDefine the terms: parietal pleura- pleural cavity- visceral pleura- visceral pericardium- pericardial cavity- parietal pericardium-parietal pleura - outer serous membrane surrounding the lungs pleural cavity - space between the serous membranes around the lungs visceral pleura - inner serous membrane surrounding lungs visceral pericardium - inner serous membrane surrounding heart pericardial cavity - space between serous membranes around the heart parietal pericardium - outer serous membrane surrounding heartDefine the terms: Visceral peritoneum - Mesentery proper - Parietal peritoneum - Lesser omentum - Peritoneal cavity - Greater omentum -Visceral peritoneum - inner serous membrane surrounding the abdominal region Mesentery proper - fan-shaped fold of peritoneum that suspends the small intestine in place from the internal surface of the posterior abdominal wall Parietal peritoneum - outer serous membrane surrounding the abdominal region Lesser omentum - connects the superomedial surface to the stomach and proximal end of the duodenum to the liver Peritoneal cavity - space between the abdominal serous membranes Greater omentum - extends inferiorly like apron from inferolateral surface of the stomach and covers most abdominal organs; fat storageList the structures found in each of these Organ Systems: Integumentary - Endocrine - Lymphatic - Muscular -Integumentary - skin, hair, and hails Endocrine - glands Lymphatic - lymph nodes, lymph vessels, lymph organs Muscular - smooth, skeletal, ans cardiac musclesList the structures found in each of these Organ Systems: Nervous - Respiratory - Circulatory - Urinary -Nervous - nerves, brain, spinal cord Respiratory - lungs, trachea, larynx, pharynx, bronchioles, nose Circulatory - heart, capillaries, veins, arteries Urinary - kidneys, bladder, ureter, urethraWhat body cavity (dorsal/ventral) contains the cranial cavity, vertebral canal, spinal cord, and meninges?Dorsal cavityWhat body cavity (dorsal/ventral) contains the abdominal cavity, diaphragm, mediastinum, lungs?Ventral cavityPlace the following body cavities in order from superior to inferior: cranial cavity abdominal cavity thoracic cavity pelvic cavityCranial cavity -> thoracic cavity -> abdominal cavity -> pelvic cavityWhat is the name of the highlighted body cavity?cranial cavityWhat is the name of the upper middle region of the abdomen?epigastric regionWhat is the name of the upper left region of the abdomen?left hypochondriac regionWhat is the name of the region on the right side above the pelvic bone but below the ribs (central)?right flank (lumbar) regionDefine the type epithelium based on their number of layers. Label cell types by shape. single layer all attached to basement membrane: multiple layers, not all are attached to basement membrane: cell type that is flat - cell type that resembles a square, equally as wide as it is tall: cell type that is taller than it is wide:- simple epithelium - stratified epithelium - squamous - cuboidal - columnarDescribe the mode of secretion for each of these glands: merocrine - holocrine - apocrine -merocrine - uses exocytosis via secretory vesicles holocrine - accumulation of dead cell particles is released simultaneously apocrine - inner membrane pinches off (mammary)Which type of epithelial tissue would be found in each of these locations: ducts of exocrine glands lining of alveoli lining of uterine tubes lining of most of the digestive tractducts of exocrine glands -> simple cuboidal lining of alveoli -> simple squamous lining of uterine tubes -> ciliated simple columnar lining of most of the digestive tract -> conciliated simple columnarFill in the Blanks about epithelial cells and tissue:Epithelial tissue can be classified according to cell shape and number of layers. One layer of cells is called simple, and more than one layer is called stratified. Thin, flat, scaly cells are squamous. Cuboidal cells are either rounded or square in shape. Columnar cells are tall and thin. Pseudostratified cells look like more than one layer because of the arrangements of the cells' nuclei.Correctly label the following areas on a slide of simple columnar epithelium.Correctly label the parts of an exocrine gland.Which type of gland (endocrine/exocrine) secretes hormones, releases products into the blood, and an example is the gland that secretes cortisol?endocrineWhich type of gland (endocrine/exocrine) secretes enzymes, releases products into a duct or onto a surface, goblet cells, contains septa dividing the gland into lobes, sweat glands?exocrineSelect the correct word from the list to complete each sentence. Not all terms will be used.Epithelial tissue consists almost entirely of cells, with very little extracellular matrix between them. Epithelial tissue covers body surfaces and forms glands that are derived developmentally from body surfaces. Most epithelial tissues have one free, or apical, surface not attached to other cells. The basal surface of most epithelial tissues is attached to a basement membrane, a specialized type of extracellular material secreted by epithelial and connective tissue cells. Epithelial cells retain the ability to undergo mitosis and therefore are able to replace damaged cells with new epithelial cells.Which type of epithelium is a single layer, all attached to basement membrane, and composed of squamous cells?simple epitheliumEpithelial tissue: a) is composed of cells, matrix and ground substance. b) cells can be cube or column shaped. c) cells secrete a ground substance composed of hydroxyapatate. d) cells are typically scattered in a random fashion in the matrix they produce.b) cells can be cube or column shaped.Which of the following is a normal response to excessive loss of body heat in a cold environment? a) Dermal blood vessels constrict. b) Sweat glands become active. c) Smooth muscles relax. d) Dermal blood vessels dilate. e) Hairs are retracted into their follicles.a) Dermal blood vessels constrict.Which of the following chemical substances is not a form of vitamin D involved in the progression to the active form of vitamin D? a) Hydrocortisone b) Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) c) Calcidiol d) Calcitriola) HydrocortisoneWhich of the following are functions of the skin? Check all that apply. a) Absorption of oils or lipid-soluble chemical or drugs, such as estrogen or nicotine, through transdermal patches b) Excretion of sebum that lubricates the skin surface and hair c) Secretion of the waste product urea during sweating d) Secretion of water and salt during sweating, which plays a role in electrolyte homeostasisall of the aboveLines of cleavage (or tension lines) in the skin relate to the predominant orientation of ______ fiber bundles.collagenThe release of water vapor from sweat glands when we are not sweating is a process called _____.transpirationThe delivery of drugs through the skin through the use of an adhesive patch is called _____ administrationtransdermalImmune cells found in the epidermis are calledepidermal dendritic cellsRecall that all epithelia, including the epidermis, are avascular. Therefore, blood vessels within the _______ must supply nutrients to the epidermis.dermisCancer cells in the epidermis are attacked by a) melanocytes. b) keratinocytes. c) Merkel cells. d) epidermal dendritic cells.d) epidermal dendritic cells.Epidermal dendritic (Langerhans) cells function as part of the ______ response a) heating b) immune c) sweating d) sensory e) tanningb) immuneTrue or False: Transpiration is another name for sweating.falseAnother name for the skin is the _________ membrane.cutaneousProduction of this vitamin requires skin exposure to the sun. This vitamin is crucial for regulation of calcium and phosphate.Vitamin DThe function of melanin in the skin is toprotect against UV lightBlood capillaries that supply nourishment for the epidermis are located in thedermal papillaeTrue or False: The ability of the components of the integumentary system to respond to stress or trauma is independent of nervous or endocrine system control.FalseTrue or False: The subcutaneous layer, or hypodermis, is one of the two parts of the integument.FalseWhat is the composition of the subcutaneous layer?Areolar connective tissue and adipose connective tissueAll connective tissues have three features in common. They arecells, protein fibers, and ground substanceGroups of similar cells and extracellular products that carry out a common function are calledtissuesThe nucleus of a neuron is found in itscell bodyThe type of muscle that has elongated, multinucleated cells and is under voluntary control is __________ muscle.skeletalThere are four types of body membranes. Select the exception. a) Cartilaginous b) Synovial c) Serous d) Cutaneous e) Mucousa) CartilaginousThe type of membrane that lines many of the body's joints is a _________ membrane.synovialSome bone interiors contain hemopoietic tissue, which functions inproducing blood cellsWhich cell type, found in connective tissue proper, is formed from monocytes and serves to phagocytize damaged cells or pathogens?macrophageWhich primary tissue type would be represented by blood, body fat, ligaments and tendons, dermis of the skin, and the cartilage of some joints?connective tissueThe type of muscle that is found in blood vessel walls is __________ musclesmoothThe head, neck, and trunk make up the ______ region of the body.axialWhich of the following is not secreted by glands?DNAA _____________ epithelium consists of a single layer of flattened cells attached directly to a basement membrane.simple squamousThe word ________ implies an imaginary flat surface passing through the body.planeThe directional term that means "away from the midline of the body" islateralThe directional term that means "closest to the point of attachment to the trunk" isproximalMicroscopic folds that extend from the apical surface of certain epithelia to increase the surface area for absorption and secretion are calledmicrovilliWhich tissue type covers body surfaces and lines the inside of organs and body cavities?epithelialThe directional term that means "in back of" or "toward the back surface" isposteriorThe best term for referring to the rear or "tail end" iscaudal