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Psychology Chapter 13 Social Psychology
Terms in this set (80)
Zephyr is Nadia's favorite clothing brand. Recently, Zephyr was involved in a scandal for using child labor.
Despite knowing about the scandal, Nadia continues to shop at Zephyr. This makes her feel uneasy as she is against child labor. In this scenario, Nadia's feeling of uneasiness is best explained by the concept of
Which of the following is true of implicit racism?
It must be measured with a method that does not require a person's awareness.
Which of the following statements best defines conformity?
a change in a person's behavior to coincide more closely with a group standard
Caroline has volunteered to work with the underprivileged children who are participants in her professor's literacy project. She is hoping that her professor will take this into consideration when calculating her grades. In this scenario, Caroline is demonstrating an expectation of
Adeline is a jury member in a criminal case. After hearing the attorneys, she decides that the accused in the case must be sentenced to life in prison without parole. However, after deliberating the case with the other members of the jury, she decides that the accused must be sentenced to death. Which of the following aspects of group decision making is best exemplified in this scenario?
In the context of the pathways of persuasion identified by the elaboration likelihood model, which of the following is a difference between the central and peripheral routes to persuasion?
When compared with the peripheral route, the central route is more effective when people have the ability and the motivation to pay attention.
Greg yells at his wife. He later apologizes to her and says that he had a rough day at work. According to attribution theory, Greg is attributing his behavior to
Sally is very intelligent and has a great personality. However, she has always seen herself as unattractive and, as a result, is often depressed. Sally's depression is most likely facilitated by feelings of
Carlos, a manager, wants to meet his team members—Megan, Aisha, Chang, and Jake—at 9.00 a.m. the following day. Aisha turns up 15 minutes late for the meeting. In this scenario, who among the following is committing the fundamental attribution error?
Chang, who thinks Aisha has a laid-back attitude toward work
In the context of group decision making, which of the following actions is most likely to prevent groupthink?
avoiding isolation of the group
study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
the tendency of an individual who observes an emergency to help less when other people are present than when the observer is alone
5 steps to help in an emergency
-notice the event
-understand that it is an emergency
-take responsibility foe aiding the victim
-know how to help
the area of social psychology that explores how people select, interpret, remember, and use social information
the study of social thoughts, feelings, and behavior that incorporates a range of measures of the brain and body functioning.
we use social stimuli to form impressions of others
a generalization about a group's characteristics that does not consider any variations from one individual to another
social expectations that cause an individual to act in such a way that the expectations are realized
the view that people are motivated to discover the underlying causes of behavior as part of their effort to make sense of the behavior
fundamental attribution error
Observers' overestimation of the importance of internal traits and underestimation of the importance of external situations when they seek explanations of an actor's behavior.
The tendency to make judgments about group membership based on physical appearances or the match between a person and one's stereotype of a group rather than on available base rate information.
false consensus effect
a person's overestimation of the degree to which everybody else thinks or acts the way he or she does
Internal attributions include causes inside and specific to the person, such as his or her traits and abilities. External attributions include causes outside the person, such as social pressure, aspects of the social situation, and the weather.
Whether the cause of behavior is relatively enduring and permanent or temporary influences attributions.
We perceive that we have power over some causes (for instance, by preparing delicious food for a picnic) but not others (rain on picnic day).
favorable views of the self that are not necessarily rooted in reality
the tendency to take credit for one's successes and to deny responsibility for one's failures
the tendency to see oneself primarily as an object in the eyes of others
An individual's fast-acting, self-fulfilling fear of being judged based on a negative stereotype about his or her group.
the process by which individuals evaluate their thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and abilities in relation to others
An individual's opinions and beliefs about people, objects, and ideas—how the person feels about the world.
what are some conditions which attitudes guide action?
-when the person's attitudes are strong
-when the person shows a strong awareness of an attitude and rehearses and practices it.
-When the person has vested interest.
An individual's psychological discomfort (dissonance) caused by two inconsistent thoughts.
coming up with a rationale for the amount of work we put into getting something, typically by increasing the value associated with things that are difficult to attain
Bem's theory on how behaviors influence attitudes, stating that individuals make inferences about their attitudes by perceiving their behavior
elements of persuasion
1. The communicator(source)
2. The medium
3. the target(audience)
4. The message
elaboration likelihood model
theory identifying two ways to persuade: a central route and a peripheral route
Foot in the door technique
Door in the face technique
inoculation- arguments to help resist sales pitches
unselfish interest in helping another person
Giving to another person to ensure reciprocity; to gain self-esteem; to present oneself as powerful, competent, or caring; or to avoid censure from oneself and others for failing to live up to society's expectations.
socially desirable behavior that benefits others
person's feeling of oneness with emotional state of another
a complex set of characteristics that makes you unique
a temporary state of mind or feeling.
A person's position in society as determined by income, wealth, occupation, education, place of residence, and other factors
The way the media sways you in your everyday and how it effects your ways of making decisions.
behavior that is intended to harm another person
biological influences in aggression
psychological influences in aggression
-frustrating and aversive circumstances,
-observational learning factors
sociocultural influences in aggression
-The culture of honor
A change in one's behavior due to the real or imagined influence of other people
Asch's Experiment (1951)
persuasive study to get others to go along with the majority even when they don't agree it is the correct answer
biological factors in conformity
genes play a roll in a person's tendency to conform
the brains view is that conforming is a good thing amd not conforming is a mistake
psychological Factors in conformity
informational social influence; normative social influence
informational social influence
the influence other people have on us because we want to be right
normative social influence
the influence others have on us because we want them to like us
Cultural Factors in conformity
individualistic cultures value independence and individual accomplishments and emphasize differences and uniqueness
milgram's experiment -Stanley Milgram (1965-1974)
The study to see if people were likely to obey an authority figure in a white lab coat claiming to be a scientist. The "teachers" gave an electric shock to "learners" when they have a wrong answer.
the reduction in personal identity and erosion of the sense of personal responsibility when one is part of a group
imitative behavior involving the spread of actions, emotions, and ideas
improvement in an individual's performance because of the presence of others
each person's tendency to exert less effort in a group because of reduced accountability for individual effort
the tendency for a group decision to be riskier than the average decision made by the individual group members
group polarization effect
the solidification and further strengthening of an individual's position as a consequence of a group discussion or interaction
the impaired group decision making that occurs when making the right decision is less important than maintaining group harmony
the way individuals define themselves in terms of their group membership
Types of Identity
ethnicity and religion
vocations and avocations
social identity theory
Tajfel's theory that social identity, based on group membership, is a crucial part of self-image and a valuable source of positive feelings about oneself
the tendency to favor one's own ethnic group over other groups
an unjustified negative attitude toward an individual based on the individual's membership in a group
an unjustified negative or harmful action toward a member of a group simply because the person belongs to that group
optimal group contact
one way to improve intragroup relationships might be for people to come to know one another better.
how can intergroup contact likely to reduce prejudice?
-think that they are of equal status
-feel that an authority figure sanctions their positive relationships
-believe that friendship might emerge from the interaction
-engage in cooperative tasks in which everyone has something to contribute
working together on a shared goal
mere exposure effect
the phenomenon that the more individuals encounter someone or something, the more probable it is that they will start liking the person or thing even if they do not realize they have seen it before
romantic love or passionate love
Love with strong components of sexuality and infatuation, often predominant in the early part of a love relationship.
affectionate love or companionate love
love that occurs when individuals desire to have another person near and have a deep, caring affection for the person
social exchange theory
The view of social relationships as involving an exchange of goods, the objective of which is to minimize costs and maximize benefits.
A model of long-term relationships that examines the ways that commitment, investment, and the availability of attractive alternative partners predict satisfaction and stability in relationships.
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