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who modernized russia?

alexander II

what was a modernized russia like? (5 things)

power of the secret police curtailed, rural areas were allowed to elect their own governments, court system reformed, more freedom of the press, and serfs were freed

what european country had the largest territory and population in the mid-1800s?


how many ethnic groups did the russian empire consist of?

many different ones

what is an autocrat?

a ruler who has absolute power

why did russia struggle with the influence of the west?

because from the west came the winds of nationalism and liberalism

what did czar nicholas's program of russification do?

forced people to follow russias beliefs and cultre

what did pan-slavism promote?

the union of all slavic peoples under russias leadership?

where did russia expand its boundaries during the crimean war?

east into asia, but defeated in the crimean war

what does serfdom closely resemble, despite a few differences?


why were serfs freed?

because russian factories needed workers

what was part of a new system of local government that began after 1864?


what freed serfs?

the emancipation edict of 1861

what type of conditions did serfs live in despite having their freedom?


who believed that russia could be reformed only by throwing out the old system entirely and beginning anew?


despite the reforms that new systems of local governments promoted, who did most of the power remain in the hands of?

the nobles and the rich

what did the peoples will use to accomplish its aims?


after alexander II was assassinated what type of programs did his successors institute and why?

programs of repression to stamp out liberalism

what began with soldiers shooting a group of unharmed strikers?

the revolution of 1905

what was the russian parliament called?


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