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a proposed explanation of an event or behaviour of an actor in the real world. Definitions range from "an unproven assumption" to "a working hypothesis that proposed an explanation for an action or behaviour." In international relations we have intuitive theories, empirical theories, and normative theories.
the condition of a state having control and authority over its own territory and being free from any higher legal authority. It is related to, but distinct from, the condition of a government being free from any political constraints.
(1) The totality of all individuals and groups in a society who are not acting as participants in any government institutions, or (2) all individuals and groups who are neither participants in government nor acting in the interests of commercial companies.
Ethic of responsibility
For historical realists, an ethic of responsibility represents the limits of ethics in international politics; it involves the weighing up of consequences and the realization that positive outcomes may result from amoral actions.
in an anarchic international system one with no common central power, when one state seeks to improve its security it creates insecurity in other states.
a realist description of the international system that suggest there is no common power or central governing structure
the drive for power and the will to dominate are the fundamental aspects of human nature. The behaviour of the state as a self-seeking egoist is understood to be merely a reflection of the characteristics of the people that comprise that state.
If all states have a right to do anything to survive, then there is no moral constant of behaviour to obey
international politics is essentially a struggle for power, but they do not endorse the classical realist assumption that this is a result from human nature. They attribute security competition and interstate conflict to the lack of an overarching authority above states and the relative distribution of power in the international system.
a version of realism that combines both structural factors such as the distribution of power and unit-level factors such as the interest of states.
a political orientation that favors social progress by reform and by changing laws rather than by revolution. In essence it argues for human rights, parliamentary democracy, and free trade - while also maintaining that all such goals must begin within a state.
a perspective that seeks to transform international relations to emphasize peace, individual freedom, and prosperity, and to replicate domestic models of liberal democracy at the international level
a system operating in the absence of any central government. It does not imply chaos but, in realist theory, the absence of political authority
the practice of foreign conquest and rule in the context of global relations of hierarchy and subordination. It can lead to the establishment of an empire.
associated with rationalist thinkers of the 18th century. Key ideas include: secularism, progress, reason, science, knowledge and freedom
Democratic peace thesis
Makes two claims (1) liberal polities exhibit restraint in their relations with other liberal polities (2) they are imprudent in relations with authoritarian states
an essential element of capitalism that argues for no barriers to the exchange of goods, services, and investments between states
a distinct type o political entity, which may or may not be a state, possessing both a home territory and foreign territories. This may include conquered nations and colonies
a security arrangement in which all states cooperate collectively to provide security for all by the actions of all against any states within the groups which might challenge the existing order by using sanctions and force.
a process of ever-closer union between states, in a regional or international context. The process often begins with cooperation to solve technical problems.
An idea that suggests that cooperation should begin with efforts aimed at resolving specific regional or transnational problems.
Transnational non-state actor
any non-state actor or nongovernmental actor from one country that has relations with any actor from another country or with an international organization.
political power and influence in society does no belong just to the elite groups in various sectors of society, but I distributed among a wide number of groups in society. It can also mean recognition of ethnic, racial, and cultural diversity.
condition where states (or people) are affected by decisions taken by others. Can be symmetric or asymmetric.
states are less concerned about whether everyone benefits (absolute gains) and more concerned about whether someone may benefit more than someone else.
see the international system as archaic but believe the establishment of international institutions and regimes can manage relations. Purports that actors with common interests will try to maximize their gains.
Liberalism of privilege
developed democratic states have a responsibility to spread liberal values for the benefit of all peoples of earth.
This is the utopian side of liberalism. Scholars advocated a world in which states promote values like social justice, economic well being, peace, and ecological balance. These scholars see the liberal order as predatory and clearly in need of transformation.
leaders have created to many policy making institutions at the global, regional, and national levels with policy-making power led by individuals who are appointed and not elected. Thus policy decisions are not subject to review by citizens.
Society of states
an association of sovereign states based on their common interests, values, and norms.
a condition in which international organizations, transnational corporations and global markets are accountable to the peoples of the world.
systemic analyses of the ethical, moral, and political principles, that either governs or ought to govern the organization or conduct of global politics. The belief that theories should be concerned with what ought to be, rather than diagnosing what is.
we can explain the social world the same as scientists do with the natural sciences. Post-positivists believe we cannot possibly be objective observers because we are actively or passively a part of the events and issues unfolding before us.
the substructure of the society is the relationship between owners and workers. Capitalists own the means and production so they exploit their workers
the government or political structure that is controlled by those who own the means of production
social group that in Marxism is identified by its relationship with means of production and the distribution of societal resources. Examples: bourgeoisie, and proletariat (worker)
A term introduced by Lenin that suggested that competitive capitalism had been replaced by large corporations that control the market in specific sectors
the belief in Washington that global welfare would be maximized by the universal application of neoclassical economic policies that favour a minimalist state and an enhanced role for the market
Realism and liberalism are problem-solving theories. Example: How can we fix capitalism? How can we make society more democratic?
theories that are critical of the status quo and reject that things can be fixed under present system.
This takes its unit of order not states, but individual human beings, and assesses the degree of order on the basis of the delivery of certain goods (be they security, human rights, basic needs, or justice) for humanity as a whole
The normative and the institutional pattern in the relationship between states. Includes issues such as - sovereignty the forms of diplomacy, international law etc.
a political project to understand so as to change women's inequality, liberation, or oppression. Make it so gender no longer matters.
Sex and gender
"Sex" is biological difference, born male or female, the sex act; sexual difference. "Gender" is what it means to be male or female in a particular place or time; the social construction of sexual difference
the articulation of national interests and the means chosen to secure those interest, both material and ideational, in the international arena
the methods and tools that national leaders use to achieve the national interests of a state
the idea that the world is divided into nations that provide the overriding focus of political identity and loyalty, which in turn should be the basis for defining the population of states. Nationalism also can refer to this idea in the form of a strong sense of identity (sentiment) or organizations and movements seeking to realize this idea (politics) Example: the idea of 'American exceptionalism', US is a place unlike any other, with values and traditions others should emulate
the right or desire of distinct national groups to become states and govern themselves
Failed (or failing) state
a state that does not command the primary loyalty of its citizens or subjects. These states have no monopoly of force at home and lack complete control over their own territory
the tangible physical goals of state officials as they set foreign and domestic policy. Example: trade agreements, energy resources, control over strategic territory
the psychological, moral, ethical goals of a state as it set foreign and domestic policy. Promotion of values, norms and policy ideas that enhance the security and prosperity of a nation-state
the combination of material and ideal goals that comprise the goals of the governments of a state. Morgenthau considered "national interest as the pursuit of power" the essence of politics.
the use of media, the Internet, and other social culture outlets to communicate the message of a state
the use of diplomatic and military methods that force a state to concede to another state. These methods may include the threat of force and the actual mobilization of military forces so as to gradually "turn the screw" but exclude the actual use of force. The implication is that war is the next step if diplomacy fails
influence and authority deriving from attraction that a country's political, social, and economic ideas, beliefs, and practices have for people living in other countries
an international system which power is not concentrated in a few states but is diffused among a variety of state and non-state actors
Standard operating procedures (sops)
the prepared-response patterns that organizations create to react to general categories of events, crises, and actions
a form of statecraft that employs retaliatory strategy, only cooperating if others do likewise
Foreign policy style
this describes how a country deals with other states and how it approaches and decision making situation. Example: does the state act multilaterally or unilaterally, does it seek consensus on an issue or go with majority rule.
Foreign policy tradition
a tradition includes national beliefs about how the world works and a list of national interests and priorities based on these beliefs. It also refers to past action or significant historical events that act as analogs and give guidance to leaders about what strategy would best secure their national interests.
Promotive foreign policy
a foreign policy that promotes the values and interests of a state and seeks to create an international system based on these values
Intransigent foreign policy
a foreign policy that challenges the rules established by the great powers or rule-making states
a foreign policy based on reacting to international events and adjusting national goals to conform to the effects of events external to that state
state that has the political, economic, and military resources to shape the world beyond its' borders. In most cases such a state has the will and capacity to define the rules of the international system.
in an anarchic international system, one with no common central power, when one state seeks to improve its security it creates insecurity in other states.
involves concentrating resources in specific areas best able to generate return worth having, rather than trying to cover the field.
in foreign policy this means promoting certain norms and values and being prescriptive in one's foreign policy goals
a world in which there are many power centers and many f them are not nation-states. Power is diffused and is in many hands in many policy areas
the misplaced belief that the end of the cold war would bring about fundamental change in international relations and provide funds for domestic programs or even result in a reduction of taxes
the belief that a country has a unique set of domestic and foreign policy traditions. An implication is that other countries should embrace the same set of policies
launching a war to eliminate a perceived threat from another country, often started prior to the escalation of a crisis of before he enemy is itself prepared to attack
Military tools ought to be used to secure the states interests. Example: G.W. Bush's administration supported the development and deployment of a ballistic missile defense system in Eastern Europe to protect Europe and missiles from Iran or other parts of the Middle East. The US has a military hegemony in the world today, but this does not guarantee safety.
Foreign assistance is used as a means of securing policy goals. Project aid, program aid, technical assistance, humanitarian and disaster assistance, and military and security aid. Example: donating food helps the poor but it also helps the farmers in the donor state who sell their crops and cattle to the government. USAID: main goal is the enlargement of democratic and capitalist states. Reflected the neoliberal goals of the Clinton administration that trimmed its goals from 30 to 5.
Sermons (moral suasion)
These might include demarches, or simple warning, directives or position statements sent to governments as a form of moral suasion. The key to this method is diplomacy. Example: President Obama's speech in Cairo, Egypt, addressed a global audience and was a clear attempt to convince the Muslim world that the US policy toward Islam was going to change.
US foreign policy is all about trade and economic prosperity. Strong alliance between US govt. and big business, free trade and US economic hegemony are essential to US foreign policy.
Foreign policy should focus on policies that strengthen our society and safeguard values and institutions of American democracy.
Focuses on the idea that power comes with obligations and responsibilities. The united States has a moral obligation to spread American values to build an international community based on rule of law. They Support the ICC
The US must be stronger than all other countries, and its' leaders must use their power to protect the citizens of the US and promote its national interests
Rise of Neoconservatives
America is an exceptional nation and we should be willing and able to play the role of benevolent hegemon. Roosevelt and Reagan.
Obama's Foreign Policy: Engaging the world and using diplomatic and nonforce options to secure US national interests
measures taken by states to ensure the safety of their citizens, the protection of their way of life, and the survival; of their nation-state. Security can also mean the ownership of property that gives an individual the ability to secure the enjoyment of enforcement of a right or a basic human need
a fundamental values in foreign policy of states secured by a variety of tools such as military actions, diplomacy, economic resources, and international alliance. It also depends on a stable and productive domestic society.
Widening school of security
A.K.A Copenhagen School, this refers to authors who extend the definition of security to include economic, political, societal, and environmental policy areas.
A.K.A. cooperative security stresses noncompetitive approaches and cooperative approaches through which states - both friendly and foes can achieve security. Sometimes expressed, as until all people are secure from threats of war, no one is secure.
Fundamental shift in the spatial scale of human social organization that links distant communities and expands the reach of power relations across regions and continents
the use of violence by non-state groups or, in some cases, states to inspire fear, by attacking civilians and/or symbolic targets, and eliminating opposition groups. This is done for purposes such as drawing widespread attention to a grievance, provoking a severe response, or wearing down an opponent's moral resolve, to effect political change
A human association in which member share common symbols and wish to cooperate to realize common objectives
In realist theory, in an anarchical environment, states cannot assume other states will come to their defense even if they are allies. Each state must take care of itself.
Balance of power
in realist theory, refers to equilibrium between states. In structural realist theory, regards the system as having a tendency toward a natural equilibrium.
all states seek to gain more power and influence in the system to secure their national interests.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
organization established by treaty in April 1949 comprising 12 (later 16) countries from Western Europe and North America. The most important aspect of the NATO alliance was the American commitment to the defense of Western Europe. Today NATO has 28 member states.
a regional group of countries that have the same guiding philosophic ideals—usually liberal-democratic principles, norms, ethics—and tend to have the same style of political systems
Democratic states don't fight with each other and they are imprudent with authoritarian states.
an arrangement based on ideas, norms, values, and shared beliefs. According to constructivists, the social domain does not exist in nature but is constructed through processes of interaction and the sharing of meaning
first used to describe the foreign policy of Bismarck in Prussia, it describes the practice of diplomacy based on the assessment of power, territory, and material interests, with little concern for ethic realities
They specify general standards of behaviour and identify the rights and identify the rights and obligations of states. Together, norms and principles define the essential character of a regime, and these cannot be changed without transforming the natures of the regime.
the postmodern international system is one where domestic and international affairs are intertwined, national borders are permeable, and states have rejected the use of force for resolving conflict. The European Union is seen as an example of the evolution of the state-centric system.
Revolution in military affairs (RMA)
This is the effect generated by the marriage of advanced communications and information processing with state-of-the-art weapons and delivery systems. It is a means of overcoming the uncertainty and confusion that are part of any battle in war
When stakes are high and those actors in conflict are not equal in terms of weapons and technology, the weaker side adopts asymmetrical tactics. These include guerilla warfare, roadside bombs, attacks on civilians, and other terrorist tactics.
wars of identity between different ethnic communities or nations, and wars that are caused by the collapse of states or the fragmentation of multiethnic states. Most of these new wars are internal or civil wars.
sometimes called the "less-developed states" or the "postmodern states." These countries fail to provide the basics, such and border protection, law and order, and maintenance of a functioning economy
Nuclear weapon state (NWS)
A state that is party to the Nonproliferation Treaty and has tested a nuclear weapon or other nuclear explosive device before Jan. 1, 1967
the threat or use of force to prevent an actor from doing something the actor would otherwise do.
Non-nuclear weapons state (NNWS)
a state that is party to the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons, meaning that it does not possess nuclear weapons.
the possession of sufficient power to inflict unacceptable damage on a potential adversary. Nuclear deterrence must involve explicit threats in order to effectively prevent a state from using weapons. These threats must be seen as credible and must be clearly communicated.
any nongovernmental actor, such as a multinational corporation or one country's religious humanitarian organization, which has relations with any actor from another country or with an international organization\
the use of or threat to use nuclear weapons or nuclear materials to achieve the goals of rouge states or revolutionary or radical organization
the failure of states or other actors to abide by treaties or rules supported by international regimes
an increase in the number of nuclear weapons a state possesses and in other technologies used for delivery of weapons. Recently, concerns were raised about the production of tactical nuclear weapons like bunker busters that could be used in cave and underground facilities in Afghanistan
a situation suffered by people who do not have money to buy food and satisfy other basic material needs
World Bank Group
a collection of five agencies that promotes development in medium and low-income countries
Bretton Woods System
name given to the three institutions that comprise the post WWII international political economic system.
large capital investments in large projects; advanced technology, expansion of private sphere. Top down. Participatory reliance on appropriate knowledge and technology; small investments in small-scale projects; protection of the commons. Bottom up.
the removal or reduction of barriers to free trade such as tariffs or quotas on the trading of specific goods.
An international financial system in which the US dollar is used by most countries as the primary reserve asset, in contrast to the gold standard in which gold played this role
an outward oriented economy that is based on exploiting its own comparative advantages, such as cheap labour or resources
not an economic policy but a variety of political actions taken to protect domestic industries.
a direct meeting between heads of government (of the superpowers in particular) to resolve major problems. The "summit" became a regular mode of contact during the Cold War.
a market ruled by the forces of supply and demand, where all buying and selling is not constrained by government regulations or interventions
Global capital markets
these are banks, investment companies, insurance companies, trusts, hedge funds, and stock exchanges that transfer funds to industries and other commercial enterprises globally
the removal of all regulation so that market forces, not government policy, control economic developments
global welfare would be maximized by the universal application of neoliberal economic policies, which favour a minimalist state and an enhanced role for the market
when regional or international lending agencies require that recipient national governments accept certain policy conditions in order to receive a loan or some form of assistance
a pessimistic view of any interaction that suggests that another's gain is your losses
the mercantilist recommendation that states strive for economic self-sufficiency by using trade protectionism or policies of complete isolation
the study of the interactions between states or public actors and the market at domestic and international levels
an event that produces a significant change within an economy despite occurring outside of it.
form of cooperation requiring parties to pursue a common strategy in order to avoid the mutually undesirable outcome arising from the pursuit of divergent strategies
Fixed exchange rate
the price a currency will earn in a hard currency. Here a government is committed to keep it at a specific value
Floating exchange rate
the market decides what the actual value of a currency is compared to other currencies
Foreign direct investment (FDI)
Capital speculation by citizens or organizations of one country into markets or industries in another country
the removal of all regulation so that market forces, not government policy, control economic developments
this is the monetary policy device that a government uses to regulate the flows into and out of a country's capital account, i.e. the flows of investment-oriented money into and out of a country or currency
when a government controls the number of people who may work study, or relocate to its country. It may also include quotas for certain national groups for immigration.
economic, political, social or cultural activities crossing or extending across a border
social, economic, cultural, and political connections that transcend territorial geography.
Most favoured nation status
this is the status grated to most trading partners that says trade rules with that country will be the same as those given to their most favoured trading partner
obtaining goods and services across geopolitical boundaries. Usually the goal is to find the least expensive labour and raw material costs and the lowest taxes and tariff
international trade from one branch of a TNC to an affiliate of the same company in a different company
the buying and selling of products and services over the telephone or Internet. E-Bay and Amazon are examples of leaders in this area of commerce
Special Drawing Right (SDR)
IMF member have the right to borrow this asset from the organization up to the amount the country has invested in the IMF. The SDR is based on the value of a "basket" of the world's leading currencies: British pound, euro, Japanese yen and US dollar
Offshore finance centres
Extra territorial banks that investors use for a range of reasons, including the desire to avoid domestic taxes, regulation and law enforcement agencies.
Also called "stock" or "share" a number of equal portions in the nominal capital of a company, the shareholder thereby owns part of the enterprise.
derivatives that oblige a buyer and seller to complete a transaction at a predetermined time in the future at a price agreed on today. Futures are also known as "forwards"
derivatives hat give parties a right w/o obligation to buy or sell at a specific price for a stipulated period of time up to the contracts expiry date
the understanding of self in relation to the "other." Identities are social and are therefore always formed in relationships to others. Constructivists generally hold that identities shape interests; we cannot know what we want unless we know who we are. But because identities are social and produced through interactions, identities can change
the security of people, including their physical safety, their economic well being, respect for their dignity, and the protection of their human rights. Simply put, it is freedom from fear and freedom from want
The belief of key opinion-formers in Washington that global welfare would be maximized by the universal application of neoliberal economic policies that favour a minimalist state and an enhanced role for the market
Involves the regulation and coordination of transnational issue areas by nation-states, international and regional organizations, and private agencies through the establishment of international regimes. These regimes may focus on problem solving or the simple enforcement of rules and regulations.
in this context it is the survival of the person by the provision of adequate food, clean water, clothing, shelter, medical care and protection from violence and crime
each region of the world has experienced economic development, and even geographic location
people with a diffuse sense of collective identity, solidarity and common purpose that usually leads to collective political behaviour. The concept covers all the different NGOs and networks, plus all their members and all the other individuals who share the common value(s). Thus, the women's movement and the environmental movement are much more than the specific NGOs that provide leadership and loss for social change
this has been defined as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
used to demonstrate the load placed on the Earth's carrying capacity of individuals or nations. It does this by estimating the area of productive land and water system required to sustain a population at its specified standard of living
communities of plants and animals in an environment that supplies raw materials for all living things
Global environmental governance
governance is the performance of regulative functions, often in the absence of a central government authority. Global environmental governance usually refers to the structure of international agreements and organizations but can also involve governance by the private sector or NGOs
international institutions that have a special relationship with the central system of the United Nations but are constitutionally independent having their own assessed budgets, executive heads and committees, and assemblies of the representatives of all state members
sets of implicit or explicit norms rules, and decision-making procedures around which actors' expectations converge in a given area of international relations. Often simply defined in a regional or global policy areas
The regular patterns of interaction between states, but without implying any shared values between them. This is distinguished from the view of a "society" of states.
a system of production in which human labour and its products are commodities that are bought and sold in the marketplace
this is the extreme deterioration of land in arid and dry sub-humid areas due to loss of vegetation and soil moisture
a system of interdependent living organisms that share the same habitat, functioning together with all of the physical factors of the environment.
the process of sharing skills, knowledge, technologies methods of manufacturing and facilities among govt. and private actors to ensure that scientific and technological developments are accessible to a wider range of users for application in new products, processes, materials or services
providing the funds and technical training to allow developing countries to participate in global environmental governance
areas and resources not under national sovereignty that belong to no single country and are the responsibility of the entire world.
the procedure by which a state approves a convention or protocol that it has signed. There will be rules concerning the number of ratifications required before it can enter into force
this was a doctrine promoted by the Soviet Union that encourage anto colonial or anti western insurgencies in the developing world
conflicts or insurgencies that involve irregular forces. Fighters in these wars use unconventional methods of warfare such as sabotage, ambushes, roadside bombs, and sniping
the takeover of a commercial airplane for the purpose of taking hostages to bargain for a particular political or economic goal
Transnational terrorist networks
terrorists use existing global or transnational economic, transportation, and communication systems to manage and maintain terrorist organizations around the world. These networks facilitate the movement of followers and material to locations around the world
most commonly associated with Osama bin Laden "The base" is a religious group whose fighters swear an oath of fealty to Bin Laden
the spreading of a global consumer culture and pop-culture artifacts like books, music and movies. These undermine cultural values and norms
Post Modern or new terrorists
groups and individuals subscribing to millennial and apocalyptic ideologies and system-level goals. Most value destruction for its own sake, unlike most terrorists in the past, who had specific goals, usually tied to a territory
jihad can refer to a purely internal struggle to be a better Muslim or struggle to make society more closely align with Islam and the teaching of the Koran
Virtual jihad academy
the use of the internet to plan promote and propagate physical and cyber attacks as well as train and educate future followers or jihadists
the idea that humans have an essential nature, which dictates that certain kinds of human goods are always and everywhere desired; because of this there are common moral standards that govern all human relations, and these common standards can b discerned by the application of reason to human affairs
the broadest construction of cultural identity to which individuals may subscribe. A number of broad cultures have emerged from world history, including the Western, Islamic, and Chinese civilizations.
Liberal account of rights
the belief that humans have inherent rights that the state has a responsibility to protect
the principle that external powers should not intervene in the domestic affairs of sovereign states
Standards of civilization
a 19th century European discourse about which values and norms made a country "civilized" or "barbaric" and "uncivilized." The conclusion was that civilized countries should colonize barbaric regions for the latter's benefit
the notion that it is possible to improve the lives of people. Basically it is about increasing the number of choices people have. These may include living a long and healthy life, access to education, and a better standard of living.
the use of military force by external actors to end a threat to people within a sovereign state
the formal rules of conduct that states acknowledge or contract between themselves
any institution with formal procedures and formal membership from three or more countries. The minimum is set at three because multilateral relationships are significantly more complex than bilateral relationships
Supranational global relationships
an authoritative international organization that operates above the national state
the concept that al countries are equal under international law and that they are protected from outside interference; this is the basis on which the UN and other international and regional organizations operate
United Nations Charter (1945)
the charter of the united nations is the legal regime created by the united nations as the world's only "supranational" organization. The charter defines the structure of the United Nations, the powers of its constitutive agencies, and the rights and obligations of sovereign states party to the charter. Among other things the charter is the key legal document limiting the use of force to instances of self-defense and collective peace enforcement endorsed by the United Nations Security Council
League of Nations
the first permanent collective international security organization aimed at preventing future wars and resolving global problems. The league failed due to the failure of the US to join and the inability of its members to commit to a real international community
the right of the five permanent members of the Security Council (US, Russia, China, France and Great Britain) to forbid any action by the United Nations
a tool of statecraft that seeks to get a state to behave by coercion of a monetary kind: for example, freezing banking assets, cutting aid programs, or banning trade
similar to economic sanctions, an arms embargo stops the flow of arms from one country to another
Non-governmental organization (NGO)
an organization usually a grassroots one, with policy goals, but not governmental on makeup.
designed to bring hostile parties to agreement and may occur without the consent of the parties
active diplomatic efforts to seek a resolution to an international dispute that has already escalated
Post-conflict peace building
activities launched after a conflict has ended that seek to end the condition that caused the conflict
direct involvement within a state by an outside actor to achieve an outcome preferred by the intervening agency without the consent of the host state
Responsibility to Protect
the 2001final report of the international commission on intervention and state sovereignty; a UN publication that asserted the moral obligation for states to intervene in a state when that state violates the human rights of people living there
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