sociology pruit exam 2
Terms in this set (45)
is a social status acquired through an individual's own actions.
Agents of socialization
individuals or groups who transmit culture such as parents and teachers.
the interactions between genders that tends to strengthen and perpetuate gender boundaries
(including consequences)- formal organization that attempts to maximize efficiency and productivity through the rationalization of work.
Components of the self -
the self concept, or the way he looks at himself, including his image, his aspirations and expectations, his philosophical orientation, his talent and limitations, his achievements and failures, and his notion of how others look at him.
Conjunctive tasks -
tasks where the performance of the group can only be as good as the performance of the weakest link or weakest number
a ritual in which someone experiences negative, often extremely embarrassing events in the presence of others
Definition of the situation -
the social process through which the statuses and roles appropriate to a situation are identified
Differential socialization -
the process of learning the social expectations and attitudes associated with one's sex. Sociologists explain through gender socialization why human males and females behave in different ways: they learn different social roles. For example, girls learn to do different household chores than boys; girls learn to bake and clean, and boys learn to mow lawns and take out garbage. Gender socialization occurs through such diverse means as parental attitudes, schools, how peers interact with each other, and mass media.
Diffusion of responsibility
a tendency for members of a group to each assume others will take responsibility for a decision or action and hence not taking responsibility themselves
Disjunctive tasks -
if any one individual can solve them then the entire group is likely to solve them as well
Division of labor
refers to the range of tasks within a social system. This can vary from everyone doing the same thing to each person having a specialized role. It is through the division of labor that social life actually takes place and individuals are connected to it.
Social life can be viewed as the metaphor of actors playing roles on a stage (Goffman)
Human behavior can be understood as a deliberate attempt to manage the impressions other people have of us
two person group.
Emotional labor -
a type of work activity requiring the worker to display particular emotions in the normal course of providing a service
widely shared norms and values of the broad society that provide the standards for evaluating individual behavior
overzealous conformity to official regulations where their rigid application becomes dysfunctional for the organization
the tendency for individuals to be unwilling to express opinions which differ from a desired group consensus.
indicates who is responsible for decisions and who reports to whom
Pos: clarifies decision making
Neg: employees have no voice in decisions, encourages decision avoidance
a bureaucratic norm dictating that officials carry out their duties without consideration for people as individuals
to refer to strategies people use to convey a favorable impression or favorable self image to other people
socialization where peers and more experienced members train newcomers as they carry out their roles
Interactionist perspective & everyday life
emphasizes the meaning of actions and the use of symbols in communication
Mead and Cooley
combines the importance of mutual interactions among people from vertehen (subjective reality) and the importance of self-concept
the social construction of reality
emphasizes "reality" is not entirely objective, but is shaped by individual actions
- any social status formally defined as irrelevant to a situation and which should have no bearing on interactions
- the social status that defines or structures the role set for a particular situation.
Mead's stages of socialization
- Prep stage: the first stage of child's social dev., where behavior is largely imitation of others, with little use for symbols and limited role-taking
Play stage: learn to evaluate themselves and other social interactions from the point of view of particular significant others, individuals with whom they are interacting such as mother/father
Game stage: children learn to take on the role of multiple others at the same time (several people playing a game)
Adult stage: the final stage in which person is capable of taking on the role of the generalized other, assessing behavior in term of the norms and values of the broad society and responding to abstract principles and symbols
- norms and values (voluntary associations)
talented people are promoted until they reach a level where they are incompetent (Peter Griffen)
- cognitive development arguing young children go through 4 distinct stages in their ability to reason and perceive
Primary contribution shows how the ability of the mind to reason and act evolves as a function of biological maturation and social experience
Work didn't include people from full range of cultures
group in which people have intimate face-to-face associations that endures for long periods of time
generally small, close-knit, personal
strong identification, cooperation
spend time together and known each other well
profound impact, basis for lifetime friendships
ex: families, friends, room mates, chilren's play groups
- refers to the replacement of traditions, values, and emotions as motivators for behavior in society with rational, calculated ones.
Rites of passage-
A retirement party, a high-school graduation party, and a confirmation party are all examples of
- when different roles have incompatible expectations
parent and teacher
- a separation of one's self from the role one must play. Its a strategy to separate identity from action
ex: a mother giving her child meds she knows the child doesn't like saying "this will hurt me more than it hurts you"
when a person has an "attitude": manual laborer performing their job with no enthusiasm, medical workers in the operating room cracking jokes and looking disinterested during the operation
- modifications or changes in roles as a result of individual action by people occupying those roles
- avoid statuses invoking incompatible roles for the same role partner
ex: teachers avoiding romantic involvement with students
- discomfort or difficulty on the part of an individual due to the difficulty of meeting the conflicting expectations of a single role
a group that is large and impersonal, members do not usually know each other intimately or completely, there are weak ties, and the group typically has a less profound impact on the members
usually formed for a specific purpose
often short duration
larger than primary groups
ex: PTA groups
- a process of socialization in which children of the rich are prepared for and directed towards positions of privilege in society while children of the poor are prepared for and directed into low prestige and positions of subservience
Social exchange -
emphasizes the valued outcomes of the interaction
Homans and Blau
Analyzes social interaction in terms of valued outcomes to the participants
Assumes people are motivated by self-interest, measured in rewards/costs
Tend to respect highly rewarded actions and not repeat costly ones
Acts --> both costs and rewards for others
Applies to relationships
Norm of reciprocity
Cannot be explicitly negotiated/meticulously accounted for (bank transaction)
- members of a group holding the highest status within the group tend to be people who hold higher statuses outside the group as well
- a technique used by teachers to separate students into different groups based on their academic ability/interests for teaching purposes
- a social group that consists of three people. This seemingly simple addition of just one person significantly affects the group interactions and dynamics. The relationships in a triad can still be fairly intense, but the group is typically more stable than a dyad. If two people in a triad have a dispute, the third member of the group can act as mediator and help reach a compromise.