49 terms

Cognitive Psychology

CSU psy 452
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The information processing approach
grew out of the early work done in computer science
If you were to study top-down processing as it applies to smell, which of the following topics would be most relevant?
Whether people recognize a lemon fragrance more readily when they see a photo of a lemon than
when they see a photo of a rose.
What can we conclude about whether people notice the characteristics of the unattended messages in a selective attention task
People can only notice superficial features of the unattended message, such as the gender of the
speaker and the language in which the message is spoken
Suppose that you have three lists of English words; one list has one-syllable words, one has two- syllable words,and one has three-syllablew ords. According to research on working memory
you will recall a greater number of one-syllable words
Which of the following statements is the most accurate depiction of the relationship between encoding and retrieval?
When encoding emphasizes shallow processing, then shallow processing is more effective at
retrieval
Which theory of forgetting presents the best account of the tip-of-the-tongue state? Select from the following by choosing the one answer that is the most appropriate rank ordering of theories from the best account to the worst account.
retrieval failure, interference, decay
dissociation
a variable has a large effect on one test, little or no effect on another test
Lewandowsky et al. (2005) examined participants' in Germany, Australia, and US "memory" for the discovery of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Which statement below best describes their results?
Participants from Australia and the US were equally likely to falsely remember the discovery of
WMD.
Koriat et al. (2004) had subjects study related and unrelated pairs of words. Participants were asked to make a judgment of learning (JOL) for each, predicting their recall either immediately, 1 day, or 1 week later. Which of the following best describes their results?
JOLs did not vary across the 3 different retention intervals
according to the prototype approach
we judge whether an item is similar to the prototype in order to decide whether it belongs to a category.
PDP models:
is especially strong in explaining how we solve problems.
According to the neuropsychology research on imagery
visual imagery and visual perception cannot be identical, because actual perception activates the
receptors in the eye.
incremental theory
intelligence is malleable; effort can change performance
entity theory
intelligence is a "fixed" entity; you will do the same no matter how hard you try
confirmation bias
people would rather try and confirm a hypothesis than disprove it
normative decision making
some choices are more optimal than others
expected value
best choice is the one with the largest financial payoff
expected utility
the personal value we attach to outcomes
ex: getting some money is better than maximizing financial gain
belief bias effect
when people make judgements based on prior beliefs and general knowledge, rather than on rules of logic
sunk cost
investment that you can't get back
loss aversion
people view loss as worse than pleasure of gain
descriptive invariance
should make the same choice no matter how the problem is worded
procedural invariance
should make the same choice no matter how it is measured; Custody study
representativeness heuristic
used when categorizing people or situations; the likelihood that something belongs to a category or how it resembles your idea of a category
conjunction fallacy
mistake of assuming a conjunction (2 things occurring together) is more likely than a constituent event; female clinical psych compared to clinical psych.
availability heuristic
people estimate frequency of an event by the ease of retrieving ex's from memory
the greater the ease=the more probable the event
recency
recent events are judged as more frequent than they really are
familiarity
amount of exposure may distort our judgements of frequency
anchoring and adjustment heuristic
make an inital estimate (anchor) then adjust that value to fit additional info.
shoplifting case, credit card case
small sample fallacy
assumption that small samples represent the population
-large sample is least likely to deviate
-small sample=more deviation
hindsight bias
occurs when an event has happened and we say the event had been inevitable
"we knew it all along"
illusory correlation
when people believe that 2 variables are statistically related even though there is no real evidence for this relationship
--correlations btw a persons psychiatric symptoms and a drawing that person presumably made
base rate
how often something occurs; should influence decisions
base rate fallacy
occurs when a person judges the outcome of a situation w/o considering prior knowledge of the probability that it will occur
mental set
the tendency to think of a problem in a typical or customary way when a better solution is available; keep trying the same solution you have used in previous problems
functional fixedness
the tendency to think of objs. for their typical or customary uses
creativity
requires finding solutions that are novel, high quality, and useful
divergent production
number of diff. responses made to each test item
investment theory of creativity
essential attributes are intelligence, knowledge, motivation, encouraging environment, appropriate thinking style, and appropriate personality
intrinsic motivation
promotes high levels of creativity
extrinisic motivation
can reduce motivation if it controls you and limits your options
template matching
compare stimuli w/ templates from our memory
--this cannot account for the flexibility of human perception
feature theories of perception
we recognize objs. by identifying their components
--these are compared to stored lists of features in memory for identification
recognition by components
states that we are sensitive areas w/ deep concave angles and line intersections
--cant make fine distinctions with this
object alphabet
consists of 36 geons
geon
can be combined to form meaningful 3D shapes
Underleider and Miskin (1982): gave monkeys test
emphasizing either an object or a location
next cut out small piece of brain (either temporal or parietal)
Results: monkey w/ temporal lesion, could no longer do object task
--monkeys w/ parietal lesion could no longer do location task
feature integration theory
suggest that we have feature maps (eg. shape, color, size)
Wang et al (1994):
easier to find the "dead" elephant among the "live" elephants
Easier to find the "backwards N" among "N" grouping
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