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Information systems and computer applications CLEP
Study guide for information systems and computer application CLEP examination.
Terms in this set (144)
A computer processes data in a device called the ___.
A computer processes data in a device called the central processing unit or CPU. The CPU could be considered the ______ of the computer.
______ is an area of a computer that holds data that is waiting to be processed.
A computer must ______ data so that it will be available for processing. Computers typically have more than one location for storing data, depending on how the data is being used. Memory is an area of the computer that holds data that is waiting to be processed.
_______(hard drives, disks, tapes, etc.) is the area where data can be left on a permanent basis while it is not needed for processing.
A computer must store data so that it will be available for processing. Computers typically have more than one _________ for storing data, depending on how the data is being used. Storage is the area where data can be left on a permanent basis while it is not needed for processing.
The _______ produced by a computer are known as computer output.
Computer output is the results produced by a computer. The word "output" is also a verb that means the process of producing output. Some examples of computer output include reports, documents, music, graphs, and pictures. An output device displays, _______, or transmits the results of processing.
The term "hardware" refers to the computer itself and to components called __________________ that expand the computer's input, output, and storage capabilities.
Examples of _________ include the monitor, hard drives, memory, the CPU, printers, etc.
____________ drives plug into the computer's USB ports and have memory capacities of up to many gigabytes.
When plugged into a USB port, flash memory drives show up as an _________ drive and are a convenient way to transport and transfer data.
Hypertext allows one or more words in a document to act as a ____ to another document.
Hypertext allows you to click on text to be taken to another part of the same page, or a different document or web page altogether. Hypertext is the basis of today's ________________--you click on hypertext links to be taken from one webpage to the next.
world wide web
Computer hardware in and of itself does not provide a particularly useful tool. To be useful, a computer requires a computer program or ________, which is a set of instructions that tells a computer how to perform a particular task.
Computer software is what tells the computer what to do. There are many types of software--for instance, right now you are using web browsing software to view this website. Computers can become even more effective when connected to other computers so that people can share _____________.
Traditionally, computers have been classified into four categories, from least to most powerful, are microcomputers, minicomputers, mainframe computers, and ______________.
A computer is placed in one of these categories based on its technology, physical size, _____________, and cost.
Microcomputers, also known as ________ computers, are typically found in homes and small businesses. Prices range from $500 to $5,000 but consumers typically purchase systems in the middle of this range, spending from $1,000 to $2,000.
Microcomputers are also known as personal computers, and is most likely the type of computer you are using right now to access the internet. One measure of microcomputer speed is the speed of the processor, which is measured in __________ (Mhz) or gigahertz (Ghz).
A ____________ is somewhat more powerful than a microcomputer and can carry out the processing tasks for several people working at terminals that are connected to the minicomputer.
An example of a minicomputer would be a mid-range _______.
A ________ is an input and output device that resembles a microcomputer because it has a keyboard and screen.
Unlike a microcomputer, however, a terminal does not have ___________ capability. When you input a processing request from a terminal, your request is transmitted to a computer (i.e. a minicomputer or mainframe) which processes data as necessary, then sends the results back to your terminal.
__________ are large, fast, and fairly expensive computers, generally used by business or government to provide centralized storage, processing and management for large amounts of data.
Like a minicomputer, one mainframe computer carries out processing tasks for multiple users, who input processing requests from terminals. However, a mainframe generally services more users than a minicomputer--some mainframes handle __________ of users.
_____________ are physical materials that provide long-term storage for computer data.
Examples of storage media include _____________, tape backups, etc..
A __________ can store billions of characters on a non-removable disk platter.
hard disk drive is mounted _______ the system unit; an external light indicates when the hard disk drive is in use.
A CD-ROM drive and a ___ drive are storage devices that use laser technology to read data from optical disks.
A ______ disk drive is a storage device that writes data on floppy disks.
A typical microcomputer system has a ______-inch floppy disk drive that stores as many as 1.44 million characters of data on one floppy disk. A light indicates when the floppy disk drive is in use--a warning not to remove your disk until the light goes out.
Most of the computers used in people's homes are based on one of two major platforms--PCs and ____ (or Macintosh).
The two major platforms are PCs (____________________) and Macs.
Windows normally runs on the __ platform.
Some people run other operating systems instead of Windows on their PC (i.e. ______ Redhat).
Computers that operate in essentially the same way are said to be __________.
A computer _______ is a collection of computers and other devices that have been connected in order to share data, hardware, and software.
Network users can send messages to other users on the network and retrieve data from a centralized storage device. Using a computer on a network is not much different from using a stand-alone computer, except that you have access to data and software kept on other computers and devices not _________ connected to your machine.
The world's largest network, the ________, provides many information services, but the most popular is the World Wide Web, often referred to simply as the Web.
The Internet refers to the world wide network which many business and home users are connected to today. The World Wide Web, which is what most people are actually talking about when they refer to "surfing the Web," is just one part of the Internet. The Internet offers other services as well, such as FTP (_______________ Protocol).
If you type the formula a1+b1/2 into a spreadsheet cell. What is the first mathematical operation that occurs? ________
Computers have a mathematical order of operations--certain operations get _________ over others. Its order of operations is actually the same as the one used in everyday math.
Specifically, you always do what's in parentheses () first. After that, exponents get priority, and then multiplication and division always come before addition and subtraction.
In this case, whatever is in cell B1 would be divided by 2, then added to A1. For instance, given the following piece of spreadsheet, the answer would be 33+55 = 88.
In a math equation, the computer will calculate whatever is in the parentheses first. It then processes _________ next.
In a spreadsheet, referring to a cell with an address such as $B$5 is called using a ________ address.
In a spreadsheet, how would you reference the range of cells in column B including rows 3 through 11, using relative addressing? ______
______ automation systems include E-mail, word processing, voice mail, scheduling, databases, and more.
Those are examples of office automation systems. Office automation systems computerize day-to-day office tasks. Things that are not office automation systems would be tasks which are not day-to-day tasks, like ________ management.
The means by which humans and computers ___________ is referred to as the user interface.
Through the user interface, the computer accepts your ______ and presents you with output.
A prompt is a message displayed by the computer that asks for _____ from the user.
A command is an ___________ you input to tell the computer to carry out a task.
______ specifies the sequence and punctuation for command words and parameters.
When typing command words and the associated parameters, there is a correct "syntax" to use for the computer to ___________ your command.
COBOL is a ________ language.
Writing computer software is like writing a message to the computer containing instructions. It must be written in a computer language for the computer to understand.
There are many computer languages of different types. COBOL is a compiled language; it is NOT an __________ language. You will learn more on this later.
f you misspell a command word, leave out required punctuation, or type the command words out of order, you have made a ______ error and the computer will display an error message.
An interface that requires the user to ____ commands is referred to as a command-line.
An interface that requires the user to type commands is referred to as a command-line interface. This is in contrast to a ___________________________ (GUI) which is based on graphics, and typically a mouse to manipulate the graphics instead of a keyboard to type commands. If you use Windows, you're using a graphical user interface--you click on commands, you don't type them.
graphical user interface
_____ option buttons sometimes called "radio buttons," allow you to select only one of the options.
Radio buttons allow you to select one of the options. This is in contrast to checkboxes, which allow you to select some or all of the options. Radio buttons are round, checkboxes are _______.
Below is an example of a situation using checkboxes (select as many as you want), versus a situation using radio buttons (only select one):
______ Checkboxes allow you to select any or all of the options.
Square checkboxes allow you to select any or all of the options, as opposed to ______ buttons, which allow you to select only one option.
The more dots your screen displays in the matrix, the higher its __________.
A ________ looks like it's displaying one big picture, but it is actually made up of thousands of little dots called pixels. The more pixels your screen has, the crisper the picture. The number of pixels you have is called your resolution. Common resolutions are 800x600 pixels, 1024x768 pixels, etc..
Software for accessing the ______________ is called a browser.
World Wide Web
A web browser is used to "_____ the Web."
You can search for information on a specific topic using a _____________.
Popular search engines include _______, Altavista, etc..
Artificial Intelligence refers to the ability of computers to solve problems and perform tasks that were once thought to be uniquely _____.
Artificial Intelligence is often referred to as ___.
An employee at IBM(ibm.com) would probably have the domain name _______ after the "at" symbol in his work e-mail address.
If you have free email from yahoo, your address might be firstname.lastname@example.org. "__________" is the domain name for your email.
______ are a set of principles and beliefs that we as free human beings follow to guide our actions and behavior.
This word comes from the Greek word ethos and means __________.
The main ethical and moral implications of living in the digital age include information and intellectual ________ rights
With computerization, traditional intellectual property rights are difficult to enforce. For example, it is easy to pirate and distribute _____________ materials.
The basic concepts of ethical behavior are responsibility, ______________, liability and due process.
This is the system in society that determines who took the actions in question and who is responsible for those actions. Responsibility means accepting the ______________ of your actions. Liability refers to the legal system that places responsibility on the guilty party and punishes them accordingly. Due process explains the established legal process and appeals procedure to ensure that the laws were properly applied.
________ is normally thought of as a set of instructions for the computer and its associated data, which are stored in electronic format, that direct the computer to accomplish certain tasks.
There are many types of software. Windows, Microsoft Word, Internet Explorer, whatever computer games you play, are all examples of software; they tell the computer to perform a specific _________.
People who _________ copy, distribute, or modify software are often called pirates.
_________ companies lose millions of dollars every year to software piracy.
Illegal copies of software are referred to as _______ software.
A _______ is a legal contract which defines the ways in which you may use the computer program.
For most software packages, you must agree to the ______ of a license before you are allowed to install the software.
A site license allows the software to be used on all computers in one ________.
This could be a set range, like 2 km or it could be limited to one _________.
_________ is "try before you buy" software.
Instead of purchasing software, you initially get a copy for free. If you want to use the product after a certain trial period, you must send in a ______________ fee.
_____________ software, or "freeware", is software that has been donated to the public, so it is not owned by the author.
The license for "freeware" allows people to distribute, copy, and even resell it. They may not, however, apply for a __________.
Mail Merge is a feature supported by many word processors that enables you to generate ____ letters.
An example of word processing software is Microsoft Word--it allows you to type up letters and other documents. Mail Merge would be the feature you use to send out a hundred different form letters, each with only the _________ changed to match the person's name.
There are two basic categories of software. ____________ software is a program designed for use by end-users.
Most programs you use--word processors, spreadsheets, web browsers, the banking program you interact with, are all applications software. The other type of software is ________ software, which are programs that interact with the computer at a very basic level (i.e. operating systems, compilers).
Application software helps the user carry out a ________ task.
Application software helps the user carry out a task. Examples of application software are word processors, graphics programs, and _____________ programs.
A ______ bit is an extra bit of information added to every piece of data that is transmitted to make sure it is transmitted accurately.
A parity bit allows some basic ______-checking to verify that the data that has arrived on the other end is accurate; in other words, no info was lost or changed in the transmission.
An Operating System is essentially the __________ of all activities that take place on your computer.
The operating system is the first piece of software installed on a brand new computer. The most common operating system is ________, for PC's. Other operating systems are Linux, and MacOS.
n addition to providing external services, an operating system will also provide internal services, which are "behind the scenes" and ensure that the computer is functioning ________.
Examples of internal services are managing the hard drive, detecting hardware failure, and allocating _______ to programs that require it.
Any part of a computer system that might be used by a computer program is called a ________.
Examples of system resources are disk drive space, __________ time, or memory capacity.
Windows is the most popular operating system for ________ computers today.
This is mainly because of the wide array of ______________ and games available for this operating system and its user friendly interface.
____________ is a service which allows you to work on several projects at a time.
Windows has multi-tasking; it allows you to run many different programs at once. For example, you might be running your email program (i.e. Outlook) in one window, surfing the web in Internet Explorer in another window, and running the Calculator program in a third _______.
UNIX is an operating system that was developed in 1969 by AT&T's ____ Laboratories.
It was originally made for ________________, but has since gained popularity on the larger computers, since it is extremely stable. It is not usually run on personal computers.
Before you can store data on a disk, the disk must be _________.
Before you can store data on a disk, it must be formatted. Floppy disks almost always come already formatted. Formatting a disk also _______ the contents of the disk.
System software which helps the computer control a __________ device, such as a printer or sound card, is called a device driver.
Peripheral devices (i.e. printers, scanners, modems) don't just control themselves; they need pieces of software called device drivers which are specially designed to ________ them.
A ____________________ allows a programmer to create a program using english-like instructions.
There are many different computer languages a ___________ can choose from, each with their own strengths and weaknesses. Some examples are C++, Fortran, and COBOL.
_________ provides a way for people to collaborate their efforts on a project.
Lotus Notes and Microsoft _________ are popular examples of groupware applications. They allow users to view the same information by copying files across a distributed system, share calendars, and handle email.
Examples of groupware capabilities include shared document control, scheduling, project management, video conferencing and _______ messaging.
The purpose of groupware is to allow team members to work together even though they are in different physical __________.
___________ software makes calculations based on numbers and formulas the user enters.
An example of a spreadsheet program is Microsoft ______. You can enter numbers and formulas. Businesses often use spreadsheets to keep track of their inventory, sales, etc..
A ____ text file stores information in a text file similar to how you would on index cards.
A computer stores information on storage media such as hard drives and floppy disks. It stores the information in files, in a variety of formats. A flat text file is the _________ kind of file, the computer just writes straight to it, without encoding it in computer language or doing any special kind of formatting to it.
You can use ______________ software to control another computer remotely.
Popular remote control software includes VNC, ________, and PCanywhere.
______________ is a way to use your computer to transfer funds among accounts, download transactions directly from your bank, and pay bills, all via the Web.
Most major banks (i.e. Bank of America, Wachovia) offer _______ banking from the convenience of your home.
Many operating systems are downwardly __________ which means that they can run programs meant for earlier versions.
For example, you might be running Windows XP, but programs designed for an older version of Windows (i.e. Windows 95), should still run on your operating system. This is sometimes called __________ compatibility.
New software you purchase will typically come with a setup program that leads you through the ____________ process.
A ___________ language is a set of keywords and grammar rules used to create instructions for a computer.
Examples of programming languages include C, C++, _______, Java, BASIC and assembly.
A compiler converts ______ code (the original code written by the programmer) into object code (an executable file).
The compiled program is saved as object code for later execution. Examples of compiler programs include C, ____, visual basic, and Pascal.
n computer programming, ______ errors refer to typographical errors and incorrect use of the programming language.
Common syntax errors include incorrect or missing punctuation, spelling errors, and omitting _________.
A keyword has a predefined meaning for the compiler which translates each line of programming code into the _______ language that the computer can understand.
Examples of keywords include READ, WRITE, IF, and _____.
The two types of ___________ errors are logic and syntax errors.
Logic errors occur when the program does not do what the programmer expects it to do and are the most difficult errors to ______. They occur even though the program contains no syntax errors.
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