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a spring that emits intermittent jets of heated water and steam

natural resources

parts of earth's that supply materials useful or necessary for the survival of living organisms

renewable resource

natural resources, such as water, sunlight, and crops, that are constantly being recycled or replaced by nature.

nonrenewable resource

natural resources such a petroleum, minerals, and metals, that are used more quickly than can be replaced by natural processes


nonrenewable resourse formed over hundreds and millions of years mostly from the remains of microscopic marine organisms buried in earth's crust.

fossil fuels

nonrenewable energy resources-coal,oil, and natural gas-that formed Earth's crust over hundreds and millions and years.

hydroelectric power

electricity produced when the energy of falling water turns the blades of a generator turbine.

nuclear energy

energy produced by the splitting apart of billions of uranium nuclei by nuclear fission reaction

geothermal energy

heat energy within Earth's crust, available only where natural geysers or volcanos are located


the whole mass of air surrounding Earth


substance that contaminates any part of the environment

acid precipitation

precipitation with a pH below 5.6 which occurs when air pollutants from the burning of fossil fuels react with water in the atmosphere to form strong acids- that can pollute water, kill fish and plants, and damage soils

greenhouse effects

heat-trapping feature of the atmosphere that keeps Earths warm enough to support life.

ozone depletion

thinning of the Earth's ozone layer caused by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) leaking into the air and reacting chemically with ozone, breaking the ozone molecules apart.


movement of soil from one plate to another

hazardous waste

waste materials, such as pesticides and leftover paints, that are harmful to human health or poisonous to human living


to subject to a special process or treatment in preparation for reuse


conservation method that is a form of reuse and requires changing or reprocessing an item or natural resource.

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