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APWH Unit 1 Review- Major comparisons and Snapshots

Terms in this set (9)

From 8000BCE to 600CE the role of women in different religions remained fairly minimal, varying between communities. Society at this age was highly patriarchal and women were seen as subordinate to men.

Confucianism:

Chinese moralists saw orderly, patriarchal families as the foundations for a stable society
emphasized the value Xiao, or filial piety, which called for family respect
treatise Admonitions for Women, written by a woman (Ban Zhao), taught women to practice humility, obedience, subservience, and devotion towards their husbands

Christianity:

status of women was mainly patriarchal
most regions continued to treat women in the same way they did before Christianity spread there, subordinately
in some communities women were allowed to serve as priests and great power was attributed to the Virgin Mary
many communities restricted church offices to men and conceived of Christian deities as men (in some branches of Christianity church office positions are still today, restricted to men)

Hinduism:

still a predominantly patriarchal society.
women were expected to direct affairs within their homes (cleaning, raising children, tending to husband, cooking) but no where else
they had no public authority, couldn't inherit property, and could not rise to the position of priest
the Law book of Manu called for respect towards women as long as they were subservient to men
practice of Sati (Suttee) clearly demonstrated the position of women- at the death of their husbands, women were to throw themselves on his funeral pyre, joining him in death (never became widely practiced)
women were not allowed to remarry after the death of their husband and expected little out of life after that

Buddhism:

arose out of Hinduism so it enjoyed many of the same patriarchal values
Buddha believed in dismantling the caste system, so in this aspect women gained some rights (more social mobility)



Ultimately, the patriarchal disposition of society dominated belief systems in the classical era.
India
At the top were the Brahmin (priests, scholars, teachers)
Next were the Kshatriyas (kings/rulers, warriors)
Then the Vaishyas (agriculturalists, merchants)
After them were the Shudras (artisans, other skilled workers)
At the bottom were the Dalits or the Untouchables (peasantry [sometimes not even considered a part of the caste system altogether])

external image caste%20system.jpg- though not completely rigid and accommodated foreigners, however difficult to move upwards, not so much down
- Jati (sub caste) further described the hierarchy as people saw other jobs as lower and individuals gained recognition for their jati
- by the Gupta era, child marriage was common, putting women under the authority of older men and encouraged them to remain devoted to family
- however, married women ruled the home.

Other hierarchies varied because of area and evolution through time.

Slaves occur in all these stratifications. They are conquered peoples, people captured at war, people that had sold themselves into slavery to absolve their debts, or (as in Persia) people that participated in revolts or resisted the initial take over. Racial slavery doesn't come until the age of exploration.

The oppression of women also occurs, though exists in differing degrees.
Mesopotamia
King
Priests
Commoners
Slaves

- women legally subordinate but still had rights under the code of Hammurabi
- progressively lost these after 2000 BCE
- kings won their spot by military prowess
Egypt
Pharaoh (or Ruler)
Government Officials and Priests
Commoners
Slaves

- women were considered subordinate, but held rights to property, divorce, and the kids among other things
- allowed to rule, more often than not, alongside of male kings
- Nubia remained more liberal, women ruled more often without male kings
- both allotted royal women as regents and allowed priestesses to head religious cults
China
Ruling Elites
Free Artisans and Merchants
Peasants
Slaves

- originally, even if they were still subordinate, the woman's line of descent gave men their public authority, and so there was a motive to honor them
- after Shang dynasty, women lived solely in the shadow of men
- during the Han dynasty, filial piety and strict feminine virtues were considered the foundations of a stable society
- sharp distinctions in land distribution between the wealthy and peasant lead the social tensions and rebellions
-Yellow Turban Rising was one such occasion
Persia
Military Elites
Imperial Bureaucrats
Free Commoners
Slaves

- Persian elites were forced the observe relative tolerance of conquered peoples because of the size and number of different peoples there had strung together
- so the classes remain fluid; except for the slaves
Greece
Spartan:

Elected Council
Citizen
Helot (peasant)

- theoretically all citizens were equal and given equal chance to be elected into the Council of Five Hundred, but status was won by military prowess
-women had more freedoms/rights than other Grecian states
Athenian:

Government Officials
Aristocrat
Citizens
Slaves

- after Solon slavery was abolished and government offices were open to all citizens
- citizens were only adult free males
- Greek women were always under the authority of some male: father, husband, and even their own sons
- the exception being Sparta, where women were still legally subordinate, but enjoyed many allowances (completion in athletic contests, walking alone and unveiled, fighting for the protection of the Polis)
- the husband decided on matters like where or not to abandon a new baby
- however aristocratic women often received formal education and few earned reputations for their literature
Rome
Two Counsels (or Dictator during times of war)
Patricians
Plebeians
Slaves

- after Julius Caesar, the Counsels where replaced with an emperor
- despite the power put into the eldest male of the family; such as determining work and executing family members as he saw fit, the wife ruled the house and played large roles in managing the family
- women often received inheritance despite it being illegal (through loop holes or inconsistent reinforcement)
- by the first century women dealt with the financial affairs at home
- slaves counted for enough of the population that revolts were rampant, however quickly put down
- urban slaves were often freed by the age of thirty
- if slaves possessed an education or a extraordinary talent they could live comfortable lives
- slaves could earn their freedom though becoming gladiators, though not many survived long enough to get there

Byzantine Empire
Patriarch of Constantinople
Emperor
High Officials and Generals
Merchants
Free Peasants and Sharecroppers
Slaves

- girls were given the same education as the boys
- women were housed in separate apartments and did not participate in anything involving wine or outings

The major difference between many of these hierarchies and the caste system is religion. The caste system is solely based for the development of a person's spirit to reach nirvana. The higher in the system you are, the closer to spiritual release. Mesopotamian states and African kingdoms share a slight similarity with the Indian hierarchy in that the religious priests accumulated more status and that the rulers were considered divine or close to divinity. But it's the Byzantine Empire's stratification that looks the most alike to the caste system.
For instance the head of each group:
- Caste System = Brahmin (primarily teachers and scholars of Hinduism)
- Byzantine Empire = Patriarch of Constantinople (Christian religious figure)
Ergo, each social class held their respective religions in high esteem.​
Also, women were veiled and safe guarded to ensure virginity, modesty, and virtue.

The other hierarchies are separated purely by profession, wealth, and political influence.
Pastoral Societies

Pastoral societies used the domesitcation of horeses and camels. These societies were agricultural based or raised livestock and would stay in one area for many years. The areas they stayed at included steppes, grasslands, and mountain ranges. Men usually dominated these societies and the status of women declined and were seen as inferior and worked at home to raise children. Metal working was very helpful to these societies because it allowed farmers to work the ground more efficiently.
Nomadic Societies

Nomadic societies used hunting and gathering to survive. They worked together in bands or tribes. They specialized in basket weaving and the making of hunting tools. These societies would move everywhere the animals moved to and would not stay in one area for very long. Women in these societies were seen as equals and could be included in political decision making and other economic activities. Metal working helped the nomadic societies as well with the development of better weapons that made it easier to hunt.

+ One thing that is common to all society is the idea of defending and attacking. This fundamental and basic idea have existed since the very beginning of human history. The early humans carried stone tools for hunting and attacking. Same goes for both agricultural and nomadic societies. Agricultural societies, despite its centralization and developments, will face hardships, nomadic invasion and other hazards. As for the Nomads, it is natural for them to carry weapons and tools, since their reliance of food partially depends on who has better hunting tools.
+Mesopotamia, more specifically the Sumerian civilization, was able to develop the cuneiform writing system, which enabled the further development of religious customs and laws. Also, through development of religion (Polytheistic), the Sumerians were able to build ziggurats, which were temples that were built to appease their gods. Through these cultural developments we see through out the societies, it is evident that agricultural societies are able to produce such things just because they have free time!
+In a city-like society, it is more likely that development will arrive sooner than it will to nomadic societies. The reason behind this is that nomadic and pastoral societies will be too busy looking for food and shelter, while the Agricultural society will have some stability in food resources, which leads to other and further development such as specialization.
In Mesopotamia, settlement was natural and easy, since the region bore two rivers, Tigris and Euphrates. The two rivers enabled the society to trade, wider availability of food, and transportation was easy. However, in Mongol, an area controlled by nomadic and pastoral societies, were too busy searching for food and shelter. These nomadic societies were unable to achieve the elements that the city-area such as Mesopotamia achieved.
Greek/Rome
<Greek>
Hellenism
-worldly and rational
-they also studied the basic laws of geometry, physics, mathematics, and astronomy
-it was different from other places because it celebrated life and the experience of being human
-Aristotle's writing and books influenced the Middle East and the Western world primarily but moved on to other countries by providing logic and observation
-Greek architecture was very complex
-famous philosophers: Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle
<Rome>
-slavery was widely practiced
-role of women changed over time
-during the republican period males had almost complete control over women
-during the early empire women had more freedom to do other activities such as to vote, to divorce, more economic rights, and greater influence over financial affairs
-wealth determined one's place in the society
-they were also master builders and engineers: built roads, aqueducts, fortification cities, and many buildings
-Twelve Tables: Roman law
-Christianity was the official faith of the empire in 380 c.e.
<China>
Early Chinese civilizations
Shang (1600 B.C.E. - around 1100 B.C.E.)
Zhou (1100 B.C.E. - 256 B.C.E.)
Qin (221 B.C.E. - 209 B.C.E.)
Han (200 B.C.E. - 200 C.E.)
1. Extended/Patriarchal Family and Ancestor Worship
The extended family was important in most of the civilizations, but was especially unique in Shang China. Those extended family included all the family members such as grandparents, uncles, brothers, and sisters. "Individual families were linked to other relatives" (Stearns 39). This extended family was also patriarchal that was basically male-dominated and led by the eldest male in the family. Men basically take care of the family and take responsibility, but sometimes men try to control the whole family including their wives in patriarchal structure. In this structure, women's rights were restrictedl they were obligated to obey their husbands and to take care of house works. The extended family further led to the worships of ancestors. They relied on their ancestors, because they belived that ancestors would help and take care of the family. Through the "devoted rituals," family members were joined together.
2. Mandate of Heaven
mandateofheaven.jpgThe Zhou dynasty belived in the Mandate of Heaven, meaning that the heaven grants the power of ruler or emperor. So basically, emperor is given the absolute power to rule the empire. In other words, heaven blesses emperor. This insitution made people to obey emperor, because they believed that the god sent emperor. So emperors could remain in power.
3. Insitution of Feudal system
The Zhou China developed feudal systems. The empire was too big to be managed by one emperor. So the empire was divided into small different regions and nobles were given the lands. They were able to rule their own region within the empire. The emperor protected the nobles as long as they remained loyal to the emperor. However, wars between feudal kingdoms within the empire led to the end of Zhou dynasty.
4. Civil Service System
Civil examinations based on teachings of Confucius and were held during the Han Dynasty. People who passed those exams could work for the government. They only selected few who were highly educated. Only high class people took these exams because they were the only who knew characters and words. So basically high-class people became part of the government, and this cycle repeated and repeated again.
<India>
The Mauryan Empire (321 B.C.E - around 180 B.C.E.) and Gupta Empire (320 C.E. - 550 C.E.)
The Aryans from Persia and Central Asia invaded India in 1900 B.C.E. They brought their language, Sanskrit, and also their religion: Hindu. "In addition, a caste system emerged, and it divided society into specific classes" (Princeton 105). Long time after the Aryan invasion, the Mauryan Empire was first built. Then, one of the emperors, Ashoka converted to Buddhism, and he tried to maintain peace between Buddhists and Hindus. It seemed like Buddhism prevailed over the Hindus. However, after the fall of the Mauryans, Guptas emerged. The Gupta Empire was basically know as the Golden Age because there were a lot of developments in art, science, and mathematics. Pi and Zero were first invented and Arabic numerals were first used. Hinduism became dominant again. "Hinduism reinforced the caste system, meaning that Indian social structures were very rigid" (105). Buddhism slowly lost its power. The caste system basically regulated people's jobs and roles and limited peoples' social activities.
Mesopotamia

Culture
Independent innovation that passed to Egypt/Indus
4000 BCE bronze, copper
Wheel, irrigation canals
3500 Sumerians - cuneiform - first writing - stylus - objects > sounds
Number system - 60 - movement of heavenly bodies
navigation
time
Architecture - ziggurats - 1) glory of civilization, 2) many gods
Clay primary building material
First epic - Epic of Gilgamesh - 1) great flood story
King's quest to achieve immortality
great traders
State
Unpredictable flooding - need for government - irrigation
City-states - controlled city + surrounding area
Geography - lack of natural barriers - invasion - defensive walls
Conflicts over water/property rights
Akkadians/Babylonians - spread Sumerian culture
Code of Hammurabi - first written law code
Different rules for gender/social classes
Very harsh, favored upper class
Systematic, consistent set of regulations, not arbitrary will of a ruler
After 900 BCE -Assyrians and Persians ruled
king-like figure - lugal "big man"
Social structure
Ruled by elite, rulers, priests
Farmed by slaves - could purchase freedom
Patriarchal - men could sell wives/children to pay debts
1600 BCE women wearing veils
But...women could gain power courts, priestesses, scribes, small business

Egypt

3000 BCE - Nile River
pharaoh - pyramids - tombs for self/families
Decorated w/ colorful paintings
polytheists - afterlife > mummification
Egyptian Book of the Dead - what happened to soul, how to reach happy
afterlife > mummification and tombs
bronze tools weapons after Mesopotamia
Kush - independent innovation iron - spread to Egypt
some trade w/ Kush and Mesopotamia
hieroglyphics - from trade contacts Mesopotamia
papyrus - paper making
geography - protected - could create unique civilization
less urban than Mesopotamians
365 day calendar, medicine, math, astronomy

State

Nile overflowed annually - predictable
irrigation led to organization/government
agricultural villages engaged in trade
pharaoh - king - power
living incarnation of sun god
geography - protected from invading people
beginning 3100 when Menes unites Upper and Lower Egypt
2040-1640 BCE Middle Kingdom - culturally dynamic
New Kingdom - 1500 - regained from foreign invaders Hyksos - focused on military
by 900 in control of foreign invaders - internal disorder, invasions

Social structure

Social classes, but commoners could enter government service - rise in social status
Patriarchal, but women had some privileges
Women sometimes acted as regents for young rulers, priestesses, scribes
managed household finances/education of children
right to divorce husbands/alimony
could own property
Queen Hatshepsut

Indus - 2500 BCE Indus River - Pakistan

Culture
Streets laid out in precise grid - houses had running water/sewage
Harappan writing not deciphered - much unclear
active trade w/ Indus valley and Sumer - ores from one place found in others
blend of Aryans and Indus valley people affected future course of history
quite large - size of France/urbanized
State
unpredictable flooding
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
Because of similarities of cities, tightly unified, centrally controlled
Overtaken by Indo-Europeans - Aryans
Already dying out - 1) river change or 2) earthquake, 3) erosion of soil 4) salt in wells
whole societies - all over - Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro only tip, last
Social Structure
little known - Dravidians relatively egalitarian
not as patriarchal
Aryans - based it on color - Varnu
Aryans eventually control politically, but Dravidians would win out culturally

Shang - most isolated - Huange He valley - Yellow River - "China's Sorrow"

Culture
Isolated by deserts, mountains, and seas - unpredictable flooding
Still some trade w/ Southwest Asia and South Asia
Shang Dynasty (1766-1122 left written records)
Knowledge of bronze metallurgy - from Southwest Asia
Strengthened Shang war machine
1000 BCE Ironworking
Fortune telling and ancestor worship started here
Palaces/tombs built for emperors
Writing - oracle bones
Oracle scratch person's question on bone/shell - heat it
Resulting cracks read to learn message from gods
Shoulder
myth of Xia dynasty

State

Dynasties
Central rule to oversee irrigation/flood-control projects
Walled cities - center of cultural, military, economic - set precedent in villages
Zhou replaced Shang - "mandate of heaven" - if leader governed wisely and fairly, he could claim right to divine rule
Warrior aristocracy
fought northern/western neighbors - barbarians - expanded empire
Tradition of central authority
Began as small agricultural cities along Yellow River

Social Structure

Stratified - ruling elites, artisans, peasants, slaves
Patriarchal - father needs to know children are his
Subservient
multiple marriages
preference for sons - infanticide
Ancestor worship
Matrilineal society before Shang
Mesoamerica and Andean South America

Culture
lacked knowledge of wheel
Olmecs/Maya - pyramids/temples
Polytheistic
Cultural diffusion - maize, terraced pyramids
Calendars
Ball game on a court
Quetzalcoatl - god who would return to rule world in peace
Mayan reached height in 300 CE
system of writing - pictographs
value of zero
astronomy - predicted eclipses
length of year within a few seconds
State
small city-states - ruled by kings - fought against each other
Prisoners of war - slaves/sacrifices to gods
lack of pack animals/geography prevented communication
Inhabitants cooperated for irrigation systems
Rugged terrain of Andes prevented central gov't from organizing
Social structure
Elite class of rulers/priests vs. commoners and slaves
Geography - not in valleys of major rivers
smaller rivers/streams near oceans
no large animals/beasts of burden - llama biggest animal - human labor