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Chapt. 65 Substance Abuse
Terms in this set (47)
Alcohol used for consumption purposes is _____________ alcohol or ethanol.
-Other alcohols are ___________, an industrial solvent, and _____________, used for RUBBING ALCOHOL.
MODERATE alcohol use: 2 drinks per day for __________ and __ drink per day for WOMEN.
Men: 2x drinks per day
Women: 1 drink per day
◦considered UNHEALTHY alcohol use: early-stage problems such as ____________________, DEPRESSION, _________________, HEARTBURN, and absenteeism develop.
Effects of alcohol intoxication: ◦Behavioral changes: ___________________, mood instability, impaired judgment, impaired social or occupational functioning, impaired attention and memory; stupor or coma.
Effects of alcohol intoxication: Physical characteristics: slurred speech, lack of coordination, unsteady gait, and ___________________- involuntary eye movement.
4 main symptoms of alcoholilsm/dependence:
2. Loss of control
3. Physical Dependence (experiences withdrawl symptpms)
Etiology- Genetics in alcoholism: two genes involved w/ development of alcohol dependence.
-A defective allele (variant) of the gene _____________substantially (although not completely) protects carriers from developing alcoholism by making them ill after drinking alcohol.
Two genes involved in the predisposition to alcohol dependence.
ALDH2 --> defective allele
Metabolism of alcohol:
absorbed in the __________________ & _________________________,
transported by _____________ for metabolism
stomach & small intestines and into blood
transported by liver
True or false?
◦More than 90% of ingested alcohol is converted into acetaldehyde, then acetone, and finally into CO2 and H2O by action of various enzymes.
What leads to liver damage?
high acetaldehyde levels and chronic alcohol consumption
◦Within ______ minutes after ingestion, alcohol can be detected in the BLOOD.
◦Ethanol is a powerful depressant of the CNS; in ________ doses, alcohol can act as a disinhibitor and as a relaxant. EUPHORIA may be produced.
◦In __________ doses, alcohol can produce analgesic effects with reduction of anxiety, "reduced alertness and reduced judgment".
low doses = disinhibitor + relaxant
high doses = analgesic
Liver disease (alcoholic liver disease ALD):
◦Chronic alcohol abuse: Most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality from liver disease.
◦Fatty liver with degeneration: early stages are REVERSIBLE with abstinence.
◦Alcoholic hepatitis: inflammation of the liver.
◦Early fibrosis: healthy cells replaced by scar tissue.
◦Cirrhosis: scarring of the liver with irreversible damage.
◦Individuals with hep C virus are more susceptible to ALD.
Those who abuse alcohol have a diminished immune system so, th risk for many bacterial infections is ___________________, particularly _________________ diseases (pneumonia, TB) and viral infections (hep B and C).
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