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22 terms

5/6 Science Cells: The Basic Units of Life

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cell
in biology, the smallest unit that can perform all life processes; cells are covered by a membrane and have DNA and cytoplasm
cell membrane
a phospholipid layer that covers a cell's surface; acts as a barrier between the inside of a cell and the cell's environment
organelle
one of the small bodies in a cell's cytoplasm that are specialized to perform a specific function
nucleus
in a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-bound organelle that contains the cell's DNA and that has a tole of processes such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction
prokaryote
an organism that consists of a single cell that does not have a nucleus
eukaryote
an organism made up of cells that have a nucleus enclosed by a membrane; eukaryotes include animals, plants, and fungi, but not archaea or bacteria
cell theory
all organisms are made of one or more cells, the cell is the basic unit of all living things
cytoplasm
the fluid inside a cell
DNA
the genetic material that carries information needed to make new cells and new organisms
prokaryotic cells
cells with no nucleus
eukaryotic cells
cells that have a nucleus
ribosomes
tiny, round organelles made of protein and other material
types of archaea
heat-loving, salt-loving and methane-making
multicellular
made of many cells
cell wall
a rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell
ribosome
cell organelle composed of RNA and protein; the site of protein synthesis
endoplasmic reticulum
a system of membranes that is found in a cell's cytoplasm and that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in production of lipids
mitochondrion
in eukaryotic cells, the cell organelle that is surrounded by two membranes and that is the cite of cellular respiration
golgi complex
cell organelle that helps make and package materials to be transported out of the cell
vesicle
a small cavity or sac that contains materials in a eukaryotic cell
lysosome
a cell organelle that contains digestive enzymes
chloroplast
the organelle that uses the energy of sunlight to make food