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in biology, the smallest unit that can perform all life processes; cells are covered by a membrane and have DNA and cytoplasm

cell membrane

a phospholipid layer that covers a cell's surface; acts as a barrier between the inside of a cell and the cell's environment


one of the small bodies in a cell's cytoplasm that are specialized to perform a specific function


in a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-bound organelle that contains the cell's DNA and that has a tole of processes such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction


an organism that consists of a single cell that does not have a nucleus


an organism made up of cells that have a nucleus enclosed by a membrane; eukaryotes include animals, plants, and fungi, but not archaea or bacteria

cell theory

all organisms are made of one or more cells, the cell is the basic unit of all living things


the fluid inside a cell


the genetic material that carries information needed to make new cells and new organisms

prokaryotic cells

cells with no nucleus

eukaryotic cells

cells that have a nucleus


tiny, round organelles made of protein and other material

types of archaea

heat-loving, salt-loving and methane-making


made of many cells

cell wall

a rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell


cell organelle composed of RNA and protein; the site of protein synthesis

endoplasmic reticulum

a system of membranes that is found in a cell's cytoplasm and that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in production of lipids


in eukaryotic cells, the cell organelle that is surrounded by two membranes and that is the cite of cellular respiration

golgi complex

cell organelle that helps make and package materials to be transported out of the cell


a small cavity or sac that contains materials in a eukaryotic cell


a cell organelle that contains digestive enzymes


the organelle that uses the energy of sunlight to make food

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