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Methods - Research Integrity etc.
Terms in this set (18)
What kind of Research Integrity is there?
3. Conflicts of Interest
4. Personal Values
Fraud and its consequences
Data gets fabricated or falsified, made up and altered
Problem: Literature holds back scientific progress, studies cannot be replicated, credibility gets damaged, no funding, honest researcher in the same field also affected
Plagiarism and its consequences
Something is claimed its own while its just a copy, self-plagiarism and co-authors not credited
Problem: can come across that a study is more robust than it is, people can think its a successful replication, no relevant related information
Conflicts of Interest
A conflict between self-interest and professional obligation
Unconsciously swayed to show positive results
Some huge companies (esp. Pharma industry) funds studies to make the results look more favourable, so the drug seems more effective
COI should always be stated so the researcher can judge for its own!
Personal Values and its consequences
Personal values can blind the researcher to their data
Problem: if unwilling to except critique, the study is not scientifically acceptable
What are questionable research practises (name all)?
Practises that are usually acceptable but they can be abused to obtain better results
3. Data Snooping
5. Selective Omission
6. Publication bias
Hypothesising after results are known
Data selection that makes p-value more favourable, only taking few data into account, leads to missing and unreliable items
Collection of data until results show a favourable p-value, choice to stop is arbitrary and results should not depend on one arbitrary participant who happened to make results favourable
Only reporting results that are significant
Opposite of Cherry-Picking, omission of non-significant results, also results which contradict the hypothesis
Only positive results are published
Give an example of an unethical study
Tuskegee syphilis study
Key notes of ethic codes
Do not harm
Participants can leave at any time
Anonymity and confidentiality
Crediting other researcher
Give an example of a study which violated ethic codes
Milgram's obedience study (1963)
What is Dehoaxing?
Revealing the true purpose of the experiment to your participants, and explaining the hypothesis that you test
What is Desensitising?
The process of redoing any stress or other negative feelings that might have been experiences during the experiment
What is Peer Review Process?
Journals need to access quality of articles, so they get handed to peer review. They can reject or accept it, or accept it with revision (most common), which means they should rewrite or redo the study, this can happen many times after each other.
Also high quality depends on the number of times an article got cited.
Publishing is good; more is better; "Publish OR Perish"
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