a cost that varies with changes in the level of output; an example of a ____________ is the cost of materials
does not change as output is increased or decreased. Examples include rent and executives' salaries
the most popular method used by wholesalers and retailers to establish a selling price, does not directly analyze the costs of production. Instead, ________________ uses the cost of buying the product from the producer, plus amounts for profit and for expenses not otherwise accounted for; the total determines the selling price
The marketing manager's _______________ defines the initial price and gives direction for price movements over the product life cycle. The ___________ sets a competitive price in a speicifc market segment, based on a well-defined positioning strategy
This is sometimes called "market-plus" approach to pricing because it denotes a high price relative to the prices of competing products. This term is derived from the phrase "skimming the cream off the top". Companies often use this strategy for new products when the product is perceived by the target market as having unique advantages. ________________ is a policy whereby firm charges a high introductory price, often coupled with heavy promotions, and then lower prices over time (this is called sliding down the demand curve)
is at the opposite end of the spectrum from skimming. ____________________ means charging a low price for a product in order to reach the mass market. The low price is designed to capture a large share of substantial market, resulting in lower production costs. It does mean lower profit per unit. Therefore, to reach the break-even point, it requires a high volume of sales than would a skimming policy
a marketing-oriented strategy whereby a service retailer sets its prices on the basis of the prices charged by competitors. The concept behind this frequently used pricing objective is to simply match the price established by an industry leader for a particular product. Since price difference is minimized with this strategy, a company focuses its efforts on other ways to attract new customers
is the essential character of a society that distinguishes it from other societal groups. The underlying elements of every __________ are the values, religion, language, myths, customs, rituals, and laws that shape the behavior of the people from one generation to another
This is the most defining element of a culture. It is the enduring beliefs shared by a society that a specific mode of conduct is personally or socially preferable to another mode of conduct. People's __________ have a great effect on their consumer behavior i.e. Americans place a high value on convenience....breakfast bars, energy bars, nutrition bars, etc.
physiological differences between men and women result in different needs, such as health and beauty products
Family Life Cycle
consumer tastes in food, clothing, cars, furniture, and recreation are often age related. The ________________ is an orderly series of stages through consumers' attitudes and behavioral tendencies evolve through maturity, experience, and changing income and status
-Young married with children
-Middle aged married without children
each consumer has a unique _____________. It is a broad concept that can be thought of as a way of organizing and grouping how an individual typically reacts to situations. Some marketers believe that ____________ influences the types and brands of products purchased, such as; type of car, clothes, or jewelry a consumer buys may reflect one or more ___________ traits.
the process by which people select, organize, and interpret these stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture
an organized pattern of knowledge that an individual holds as true about his or her world. _________ may be based on knowledge, faith, or hearsay. Consumers tend to develop a set of these about a product's attributes and then, through these _______, form a brand image.
a set of beliefs about a particular brand that shapes the consumers' attitudes toward the product
a learned tendency to respond consistently toward a given object, such as a brand. ____________ rest on an individual's value system, which represents personal standards of good and bad, right and wrong, etc.
Steps in the Decision Making Process
1) Need of Recognition
2) Information Search
3) Evaluation of Alternatives
5) Post Purchase Behavior
Need of Recognition
occurs when consumers are faced with an imbalance between actual and desired states.....need vs. want
consumers search for information about the various alternatives available to satisfy it
Post Purchase Behavior
is based upon how well the consumers' expectations are met and if they are satisfied or dissatisfied with the purchase