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H.Biology: Unit 4 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (45)
The fourth stage of mitosis, beginning when sister chromatids separate from each other and ending when a complete set of daughter chromosomes arrives at each of the two poles of the cell anatomy
The requirement that to divide, a cell must
be attached to a solid surface.
A chromosome not directly involved in determining the sex of an organism; in mammals, for example, any chromosome other than X or Y.
An abnormal mass of cells that remains at its original site in the body.
A means of asexual reproduction in which a parent organism, often a single cell, divides into two genetically identical
individuals of about equal size.
An ordered sequence of events (including interphase and the mitotic phase) that extends from the time a eukaryotic cell is
first formed from a dividing parent cell until its own division into two cells.
The reproduction of a cell through duplication of the genome and division of the cytoplasm.
A double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell, between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis.
The specialization in the structure and function of cells that occurs during the development of an organism; results from selective activation and deactivation of the cells' genes.
Material in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell that gives rise to microtubules; important in mitosis and meiosis; also called microtubule-organizing center.
The microscopically visible site where crossing over has occurred between chromatids
The combination of DNA and proteins that constitutes eukaryotic chromosomes; often used to refer to the diffuse, very extended form taken by chromosomes when a cell is not dividing.
A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell and most visible during mitosis and meiosis; also, the main gene-carrying structure of a prokaryotic cell. A chromosomes consists of one very long piece of chromatin, a combination of DNA and protein.
The first sign of cytokinesis during cell division in an animal cell; a shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate.
The exchange of segments between chromatids of homologous chromosomes during synapsis in prophase I of meiosis; also, the exchange of segments between DNA molecules in prokaryotes.
Thedivisionofthecytoplasmto form two separate daughter cells. ____ usually occurs in conjunction with telophase of mitosis. Mitosis and cytokinesis make up the mitotic (M) phase of the cell cycle.
The loss of one or more nucleotides from a gene by mutation; the loss of a fragment of a chromosome.
The ceasing of cell division that occurs when cells touch one another.
In an organism that reproduces sexually, a cell containing two homologous sets of chromosomes, one set inherited from each parent; a 2n cell.
A human genetic disorder resulting from the presence of an extra chromosome 21; characterized by heart and respiratory defects and varying degrees of mental retardation.
Repetition of part of a chromosome resulting from fusion with a fragment from a homologous chromosome; can result from an error in meiosis or from mutagenesis.
A sex cell; a haploid egg or sperm.The union of two ___ of opposite sex (fertilization) produces a zygote.
The production, by crossing over and/or
independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis, of offspring with allele combinations different from those in the parents. The term may also be used more specifically to mean the production by crossing over of eukaryotic or prokaryotic chromosomes with gene combinations different from those in the original chromosomes.
A protein secreted by certain body cells that stimulates other cells to divide.
In the life cycle of an organism that reproduces sexually, a cell containing a single set of chromosomes; an n cell.
The two chromosomes that make up a matched pair in a diploid cell. ___ are of the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern and possess genes for the same characteristics at corresponding loci. One homologous chromosome is inherited from the organism's father, the other from the mother.
The period in the eukaryotic cell cycle when the cell is not actually dividing. Interphase constitutes the majority of the
time spent in the cell cycle.
A change in a chromosome resulting from reattachment of a
chromosome fragment to the original chromosome, but in a reverse
direction. Mutagens and errors during meiosis can cause inversions.
A display of micrographs of the metaphase chromosomes of a cell, arranged by size and centromere position.
An abnormal tissue mass that can spread into neighboring tissue and to other parts of the body; a cancerous tumor.
In a sexually reproducing organism, the division of a single diploid nucleus into four haploid daughter nuclei.
The third stage of mitosis, during which all
the cell's duplicated chromosomes are lined up at an imaginary plane equidistant between the poles of the mitotic spindle.
The spread of cancer cells beyond their original site.
The division of a single nucleus into two genetically identical nuclei.
A football-shaped structure formed of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movement of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis.
An accident of meiosis or mitosis in which a pair of homologous chromosomes or a pair of sister chromatids fail to separate at anaphase.
The second stage of mitosis, during which the nuclear envelope fragments and the spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores of the sister chromatids.
The first stage of mitosis, during which the chromatin condenses to form structures (sister chromatids) visible with a light microscope and the mitotic spindle begins to form, but the nucleus is still intact.
A chromosome that determines whether an individual is male or female.
One of the two identical parts of a duplicated chromosome in a eukaryotic cell.
Any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg cell or a cell that develops into a sperm or egg.
An unspecialized cell that can divide to produce an identical daughter cell and a more specialized daughter cell, which undergoes differentiation.
The fifth and final stage of mitosis, during which daughter nuclei form at the two poles of a cell.
A change in a chromosome resulting from a chromosomal fragment attaching to a nonhomologous chromosome; can occur as a result of an error in meiosis or from mutagenesis.
The diploid fertilized egg, which results from the union of a sperm cell nucleus and an egg cell nucleus.
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