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Terms in this set (104)
The institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies
the belief in and worship of a superhuman controlling power, especially a personal God or gods.
the science of building
Application of science to help people
system of writing
A means of keeping records or communicating.
stable food supply
When a society has enough food so it can survive, plus some extra to trade.
any relatively stable pattern of social behavior
A society with cities, a central government, job specialization, and social classes
A characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes.
A feature that has different forms in a population
The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain.
defined as having a low salt concentration (less than 1%). Plants and animals are adjusted to the low salt content and would not be able to survive in areas of high salt concentration (i.e., ocean). There are different types of freshwater regions: ponds and lakes, streams and rivers, and estuaries.
The process by which a division of labor occurs as different workers specialize in different tasks over time
A religion in and around the Tigris-Euphrates river system in which some of the earliest known civilization formed. it includes Sumer, Assyria, and Babylonia.
Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
the two rivers that surround Mesopotamia. These rivers would flood and provide silt that made the soil fertile.
an area of low land between hills or mountains
Exchange of goods and services
fine soil found on river bottoms
a severe shortage of food (as through crop failure) resulting in violent hunger and starvation and death
a treatment for phobias in which clients are exposed repeatedly and intensively to a feared object and made to see that it is actually harmless
An extremely dry area with little water and few plants
wheat is used to make bread
The gathering of ripe crops for a season
by laying seeds in a certain kind of soil and watering the seeds.
A large arc of rich, or fertile, farmland
Governments in northern Europe, especially in Britain, built these man-made waterways in the 1700s and 1800s to benefit commerce. It contributed to the rise of industrialization.
a brick made from baked mud
the study of material evidence of past human life
a period of 100 years
Earliest people known to maintain accurate health records
A long period of dry weather
A landform with high elevation and high relief.
water falling in drops from vapor condensed in the atmosphere
A landform made of sediment that is deposited where a river flows into an ocean or lake
A long-lasting, paper-like material made from reeds
the arrangement of the natural and artificial physical features of an area.
Supplying land with water through a network of canals
The people who dominated southern Mesopotamia through the end of the third millennium B.C.E. They were responsible for the creation of many fundamental elements of Mesopotamian culture-such as irrigation technology, cuneiform, and religious conceptions.
Huge, triangular shaped burial tombs of Egyptian pharaohs built during the Old Kingdom
A government controlled by religious leaders
an existence after death
to treat a dead body with preservatives to prevent it from decaying
chief minister who supervised the business of government in ancient Egypt
a large stone coffin
A complete enumeration of a population.
strong leader of the stable and unified period of Egypt; he was religious
Queen of Egypt (1473-1458 B.C.E.). Dispatched a naval expedition down the Red Sea to Punt (possibly Somalia), the faraway source of myrrh. There is evidence of opposition to a woman as ruler, and after her death her name was frequently expunged.
Pharaoh and great builder of Egypt
A person who rules a country for someone who is unable to rule alone
the Egyptian concept of truth, justice, and cosmic order, represented by a goddess, often portrayed with a feather upon her head
the title used by the rulers of Egypt
A series of rulers from the same family
A general term designating those places suitable for the reception of a dead human body.
a person who performs religious ceremonies
a period in Egyptian history that lasted from about 2700 BC to 2200 BC
2050 BC. - 1800 BC.: A new dynasty reunited Egypt. Moved the capital to Thebes. Built irrigation projects and canal between NIle and Red Sea so Egytian ships could trade along coasts of Arabian Penninsula and East Africa. Expanded Egyptian territory:Nubia, Syria.
the period during which Egypt reached the height of its power and glory
belonged to the second highest social class. they lived lives of luxury, throwing massive banquets and parties. for entertainment there were dancers, musicians and acrobats.
Countries agree to defend each other
belief in only one god
belief in more than one god
A form of government in which citizens choose their leaders by voting
A political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
A government ruled by a king or queen
A form of government in which the leader has absolute power and authority.
A government ruled by a few powerful people
a system of government in which priests rule in the name of God or a god.
An economic system in which the government controls a country's economy.
An economy in which private enterprise exists in combination with a considerable amount of government regulation and promotion.
an economy that allocates resources through the decentralized decisions of many firms and households as they interact in markets for goods and services
An economy in which production is based on customs and traditions and economic roles are typically passed down from one generation to the next.
Distance north or south of the equator
Distance east or west of the prime meridian, measured in degrees
the largest of all the ecosystems. The ocean regions are separated into separate zones: intertidal, pelagic, abyssal, and benthic. All four zones have a great diversity of species.
One of the principal land masses of the earth, usually regarded as including Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America.
third largest continent
the second largest continent
an extremely cold continent at the south pole almost entirely below the Antarctic Circle
This body of water contributed to Britain, the United States, France, and eventually Germany becoming industrialized
What ocean is on the West Coast of the United States?
This area possessed the biggest network of sea-based trade in the postclassical period prior to the rise of Atlantic-based trade.
This ocean, often not labled on maps, surrounds Antarctica and extends northward toward Australia
smallest and shallowest ocean
A country located to the north and west of Iraq, where the Tigris and Euphrates rivers begin
country known for its cedars in ancient times
country formed for jewish people created tension with palistan
This early empire has its home along Africa's longest river, with a detailed form of writing.
Country that produces phosphates, cement, and potash. Additionally, tourism and banking are becoming important industries. Shortage of water is a resource issue for this country.
A country located in the Middle East
A country in Southwestern Asia, officially the Republic of Iraq.
country once called Persia
Country invaded and annexed by Iraq in 1990
a country in the middle east
A country in the Middle East.
Country located on the southwestern part of the Arabian Peninsula, it has an elected government that has suffered from corruption, which has attributed to the fact that it is the poorest country on the Arabian Peninsula.
United Arab Emirates
A country made of seven tiny kingdoms
a country located by jordan
a country located under Saudi Arabia
country whose GDP is primarily based on service industries
Also called Holy Land. Biblical name, Canaan. an ancient country in SW Asia, on the E coast of the Mediterranean.
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