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Social Studies Chapter 5

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-By the mid-1700s, both Britain and France had claimed vast areas of land in North America—lands long settled by
Native Americans
In the 1750s, land disputes erupted in the Ohio Rive valley, the area between what lake and what river?
Lake Erie and the Ohio River
Who claimed the Ohio River valley as part of its territory?
France
The Virginia colony also claimed the land, and ______ settlers continued to move west.
British
When did the French begin building forts in the Ohio River valley to protect their claims?
1753
The governor of Virginia sent a militia led by who to order the French out. What did the French do about Washington's warnings.
George Washington; ignored them
The next year, Washington returned to the Ohio River valley to discover that the French already had a fort built where which rivers meet to form the Ohio River?
Allegheny and Monongahela rivers.
What was the name of the fort that the French built?
Fort Duquesne
Believing that a French force was on the way to attack him Washington and his troops attacked and defeated the ______ party.
French
What was the name of the fort that Washington built?
Fort Necessity
A large French army attacked, forcing Washington to surrender Fort Necessity. The French sent Washington home with the message that they would _________ the Ohio River valley.
never give up
Hoping to form an alliance against the French, the British called a meeting of colonial leaders and local Iroquois tribes in __________. The alliance failed.
Albany, New York
Colonial leaders at the _____ still tried to work out a plan to defend themselves against the French.
Albany Congress
Who urged the colonists to unite the colonists to unite against the enemy.
Benjamin Franklin
Franklin drew up a plan in which an ______ would have authority to act for all the colonies on urgent matters. It also could form armies and collect taxes to pay expenses.
elected council
What was rejected by the colonial assemblies.
Albany Plan of Union
In 1755, troops led by _____ marched on Fort Duquesne.
Edward Braddok
True or False: The British knew little about fighting in North America.
True
The French and their ________ allies ambushed the British, defeating them.
Native Americans
In 1756, Britain declared war on France, marking the official beginning of the ________
Seven Years' War
Who was Britain's new prime minister?
William Pitt
In 1758, The British won Fort Duquesne, renaming it ________
Fort Pitt
What was the capital of New France?
Quebec
Without Quebec, ____ could no longer defend its territory.
France
In 1763, Britain and France signed the ___________, ending the war.
Treaty of Paris
After the war Britain gained vast new lands in __________
North America
Who is the Ottawa leader? He and his allies lunched bloddy attacks on British forts and towns.
Pontiac
When did the British defeat Pontiac?
1764
Hoping to avoid further wars, the British issued ______________
the Proclamation of 1763
The Proclamation of 1763 forbid colonists from settling west of a line drawn along the ___________________
Appalachian Mountains.
Frontiers who had already moved west were told to _____
move back
Colonists could settled only _____ of the line.
east
Boston lawyer who defended the soldiers involved in the Boston Massacre.
John Adams
founded the Sons of Liberty and the Committees of Correspondence.
Samuel Adams
set up to keep the colonists informed about unpopular British actions throughout the colonies.
Committees of Correspondence
Colonists who remained loyal to Great Britain and King George III.
Loyalists
radical group of colonists who led rebellious efforts against British actions.
Sons of Liberty
Colonists who wanted independence and wanted to rebel/ go to war with Great Britain
Patriots
Sent to tell the French to leave the Ohio Rive Valley; built Fort Necessity.
George Washington
King of Britain during the colonial tax crisis.
King George III
Proposed the Albany Plan of Union.
Benjamin Franklin
Pittsburgh is named after him.
William Pitt
Leader of the Ottawa nation. Formed an alliance of western Native Americans.
Pontiac
One of the youngest member of the House of Burgesses. He made an emotional speech attacking the law.
Patrick Henry
The official in charge of the British treasury. Also wanted to weaken the colonial assemblies.
Charles Townshend
Rode through the night to warn the minutemen.
Paul Revere
When did the Boston Massacre take place?
March 5, 1770
What did the colonists do in the Boston Massacre?
The colonists shouted and threw snowballs and rocks at soldiers.
How many colonists died in the Boston Massacre?
Five
What happened to the soldiers in the Boston Massacre?
Nine soldiers were arrested. Two were branded with an "M" on the thumb.
Put a duty on molasses and called for harsh punishment of smugglers.
Sugar Act
Required colonists to quarter, or house, British troops and provide them with food and other supplies.
Quartering Act
Colonists had to buy special stamped paper. Stamps had to be on newspapers, wills, licenses, contracts, and playing cards.
Stamp Act
They would only tax products brought into the colonies. It gave customs official writs of assistance to help find illegal goods.
Townshend Acts
What started the French and Indian War?
British settlers pushed west into French and Native American lands.
Why did the colonial assemblies reject the Albany Plan?
They wanted to control their own taxes and armies.
Which of these was a result of the Second Continental Congress?
the formation of the Continental Army
What did the Olive Branch Petition state?
that the colonists remained loyal to the king
What was the purpose of Committees of Correspondence?
to keep colonists informed of British actions
Why did the Iroquois at Albany refuse to make an alliance against the French?
They expected the French to defeat the British in a war.
What turned the tide in favor of Britain?
new and better British leadership
Which of these was a demand of the First Continental Congress?
the repeal of the Intolerable Acts
What started the French and Indian War?
British settlers pushed west into French and Native American lands.
After the French and Indian War the
colonists began to see themselves as separate from Britain.
Why did the Americans withdraw from Quebec?
They were too weakened to fight against fresh British forces.
What did the 1767 Townshend Acts specify?
that Britain would tax only imports into the colonies
What happened during "Pontiac's War?
The leader of the Ottawa nation helped start an all-out attack on the British.
Why did many enslaved African Americans side with the British?
They hoped to win their freedom
What was the British East India Company?
an important British business that sold tea from India
At the beginning of the French and Indian War the
British suffered several defeats.
What event was the key to the French defeat?
the British attack on Quebec
Who were the Sons (and Daughters) of Liberty?
colonial anti-British protestors
What was "the shot heard 'round the world?"
the first shot of the American Revolution
Why did the colonists resent the Stamp Act?
They did not think Britain should have the right to tax them.
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