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Adv Mol Bio Lecture 13
Translation (an overview)
Terms in this set (15)
How much of a cells energy goes into translation?
as much as 80% of cell's energy goes to translation
How much of a cells dry weight is dedicated to translation?
50% of cell's dry weight dedicated to translation
How does translation occur?
Who proposed what has become known as "the central dogma of biology"
Crick suggested that
an RNA messenger copy that is complementary to a single strand of DNA is made and that serves as a template for protein synthesis.
He then proposed that an adaptor must couple RNA sequence to a specific amino acid.
Does Crick's adaptor molecule exist? What is it called
Crick's adaptor molecule exists - it is called a tRNA
What are the properties of tRNA?
- 15% of all RNA in cell (27,000 tRNA genes in humans!)
- 75-80 nucleotides
- 3' end has an amino acid attachment site
- midway through tRNA has an anticodon site
- there are ~40 types of tRNAs in most organisms as classified by an=-codon usage - a paradox!
hydrogen bonds between paired bases result in 3D structure
tRNAs are "charged" with
the correct amino acid
tRNAs are "charged" with the correct amino acid
- amino-acyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze linkage of amino acid with correct tRNA
- dedicated synthetase enzyme for each amino acid
- recognition of tRNA by synthetase is based on tertiary structure, but largely in acceptor stem
- requires ATP as a cofactor
- synthetase picks wrong amino acid 1 in 1000 =mes
Why is recognition of tRNA by synthetase is based on tertiary structure, but largely in acceptor stem and not the anticodon?
Because there is redundancy in the 64 possibilities.
Because there is a wobble that bonds tightly to the first 2 binding sites
Ribosomes are the....
DNA/RNA polymerase equivalent of the translation process
- the 5'end of the anticodon wobble
- one anticodon may recognize several codons
Why is it a surprise that they only discovered ~40 types of tRNA?
Because there are only 20 Amino Acids
What is EIF2 job?
has an on GTA state and an GDP off state helps to associate Met and large subunit association
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