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Lab practical 2 LAB 5
Terms in this set (90)
Aerobic cellular respiration
Oxygen acts as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain located in the plasma membrane of bacteria
Metabolic pathway that makes ATP
The shuttling of electrons through the electron transport chain to O2 allows for the establishment of an electrochemical gradient- differences in hydrogen ions (H+ ) and charge across the plasma membrane, which eventually results in the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) via the membrane-bound enzyme ATP synthase.
In the absence of oxygen, some bacteria shift their metabolic pathways to include __________________ respiration and/or fermentation
anaerobic respiration (fermentation)
Alternatives to O2 are utilized as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain.
Alternatives to O2 used in Anaerobic respiration
NITRATE, SULFATE, SULFUR, CARBONATE
Organic molecules like pyruvate and pyruvate derivatives act as the final electron acceptors, allowing glycolysis to continue in the absence of oxygen
Each round of glycolysis results in the net production of ____ ATPs per glucose
Organisms that solely rely on oxygen for cellular respiration are termed
An organism that can use oxygen for ATP production but can also grow without it is termed a
This is an organism that is unable to grow in the presence of oxygen due to the toxic nature of alternative forms of oxygen
Bacteria that do not use oxygen to produce ATP but can tolerate (grow) in the presence of oxygen are termed
These are bacteria that use oxygen for energy production but only in very low concentrations
High levels of oxygen are toxic for
The ability to grow in the presence or absence of oxygen allows bacteria to cause ________________ throughout the body, including deeper tissues or tissues with poor blood supply and poor oxygenation
Facultative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Enterococcus and anaerobes such as Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, and Clostridium can all cause
One particularly dangerous infection of deeper tissues is _________________ (also known as clostridial myonecrosis), caused by the anaerobe Clostridium perfringens.
Tissue death and swelling caused by ______ in the tissues are often seen in this deadly infection.
An obligate aerobe in an aerobic environment
An obligate aerobe in an anaerobic environment
O2 effect on an obligate aerobe
Microaerophile in an aerobic environment
growth (if not too high)
Microaerophile in an anaerobic environment
O2 effect on Microaerophile
Required (below 0.2 atm)
Obligate anaerobe in an aerobic environment
Obligate anaerobe in an anaerobic environment
O2 effect on an obligate anaerobe
Facultative anaerobe and facultative aerobe in an aerobic environment
Facultative anaerobe and facultative aerobe in an anaerobic environment
There always seems to be growth for a _________________ because it can live with or without oxygen bro.
O2 effect on facultative anaerobe and facultative aerobe
not required for growth but utilized when available
Aerotolerant anaerobe in an aerobic environment
Aerotolerant anaerobe in an anaerobic environment
O2 effect on an aerotolerant anaerobe
not required, not utilized
Oxygen is required for
Oxygen is required but at low levels for
Oxygen is toxic for
Oxygen is not required for growth but utilized when available for a
O2 is not required and not utilized for an
_____________________ is an indicator that is colorless in an anaerobic environment and greenish-blue in the presence of oxygen.
______________ will only grow in this oxygen-rich top layer
These will only grown in the lower areas of the tube (no oxygen).
These will grow in a thin layer below the richly-oxygenated layer
These can grow throughout the medium but will primarily grow in the middle of the tube, between the oxygen-rich and oxygen-free zones.
Facultative or aerotolerant anaerobes
WHAT is blue in the presence of oxygen but is colorless in an anaerobic environment.
When the oxygen in the jar is converted to water, the indicator strip turns from_______ to ________. Anaerobes should grow while obligate aerobes should not.
blue to white
Organisms with an optimum temperature near 37 degrees, typically between 20 - 45 °C (the body temperature of warm-blooded animals/HUMANS) are called
All human pathogens are ___________________.
The coldloving organisms are
These are defined by their ability to grow at 0 degrees (range -20 - 10 °C).
A variant of a psychrophile (which usually has an optimum temperature of 10 - 15 °C) is a ____________which grows at 0 degrees but displays an optimum temperature in the mesophile range, nearer room temperature.
THIS grows at 0 degrees but displays an optimum temperature in the mesophile range, near to ROOM TEMPERATURE.
THESE are the source of FOOD SPOILAGE in refrigerators since they are brought in from their mesophilic habitats and continue to grow in the refrigerated environment where they spoil the food
Organisms with an optimum temperature between about 41 - 70 degrees are
Some Archaea with an optimum temperature of 80 degrees or higher and a maximum temperature as high as 115 degrees, are now referred to as _________________ or __________________.
Extreme thermophiles or hyperthermophiles.
extreme thermophiles or hyperthermophiles
Most bacteria grow over a temperature range of about _____ degrees. The curves exhibit three points: minimum, optimum and maximum temperatures for growth.
Grow best at relatively low temperatures
Able to grow low T but prefer moderate T
Most bacteria, especially those living in associated with warm-blooded animals
above 100 (boil)
The greater the turbidity, the larger the __________________.
Microorganisms which grow at an optimum pH well below a neutral pH (7.0) are called
Those which grow best at neutral pH are called
Those that grow best under alkaline conditions are called
Water movement across a semipermeable membrane is termed
If the concentration of solutes outside the cell is higher than inside the cell, the solution surrounding the cell is considered
In a hypertonic environment, water moves ________ the cell.
plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall (water loss)
If the concentration of solutes outside the cell is lower than inside the cell, the solution surrounding the cell is considered
A bacterial cell bathed in a hypotonic environment will have ______________due to the influx of water into the cell
increased internal pressure
This is created by the influx of water into a bacterial cell.
However, some bacteria, called _________________, can grow at higher salt concentrations due to their ability to maintain high enough cytoplasmic concentrations of solutes, preventing the excessive loss of water.
This is a term used to describe bacteria that grow in both low-salt and high-salt (greater than 3% NaCl) environments. An example of this bacterium is Staphylococcus.
This is a bacterium that can grow only in the presence of high salt. Halobacterium is an example of this
E.coli is a
M. luteus is a
If comparing growth of a microbe in broth tubes incubated at different temperatures, the tube incubated at the organism's optimum temperature would _________.
Be the most turbid
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