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Dental Master (Basic Radiology)
Terms in this set (53)
What is Paget disease of the bone?
a chronic disorder that can result in enlarged and misshapen bones, pain, fractures, and arthritis
How is Paget disease diagnosed?
elevated level of alkaline phosphatase and normal calcium, phosphate, and aminotransferase levels in the blood. The pathognomonic sign for Paget disease is a radiopaque "COTTON WOOL" appearance of the bone on x-ray.
Radiolucency at apex are from what?
the tissue destruction that occurred within the periapical area
Radiopacity denotes what?
the boundary set by the inflammatory cells as they try to confine the infection.
Once the infection is completely confined by inflammatory cells, what happens?
a periapical cyst or granulation tissue may form, and the damaged bone begins to remodel.
Bone deposition in the periodical area is not very evident radiographically until sufficient thickness of bone is present. Periapical bone regeneration occurs a a rate of about 1.2mm per month, gradually reducing the size of the lesion. How long does it take until a diminished periodical lesion?
About a year
What imaging devices and techniques are used to assess TMJ?
Arthroscopy is a less invasive surgical procedure wherein an arthroscope is inserted into a small incision, approximating the TMJ to directly examine or treat the interior portion of the joint.
Cone beam computed tomography provides clear and accurate images of different orientations of the condylar head and the glenoid fossa through parasagittal, axial, and coronal image-reconstruction views.
Magnetic resonance imaging is currently the modality of choice in the assessment and diagnosis of TMJ because it can provide direct visualization of the articular disk and intra-articular abnormalities within the temporomandibular joint.
A tooth eliciting no pulpal symptoms and mobility must be treated how?
Reevaluated after eight weeks to ensure the tooth is vital and require no other treatment.
If the tooth remains vital, wha might occur?
calcific healing might have occurred at the site of the fracture. It is a type of healing in which calcific calluses develop along the fracture site.
The maxillary sinus is best seen using what?
3D imaging such as CBCT
Waters view is best for what?
the best two-dimensional image because it provides a larger image, a better angle, and exposure of both the frontal and maxillary sinus.
What is Fibrous dysplasia?
bnormal bone-growth condition in which normal bone is replaced with fibrous bone tissue
What are the radiographic features of Fibrous Dysplasia?
Radiopaque (usually) or radiolucent with a GROUND- GLASS appearance
Cortex thinned and possibly displaced
Displaces anatomical structures and may displace teeth
Poorly defined with no corticated border
Loss of lamina dura
What is the nasopalatine duct cyst?
a heart-shaped radiolucency often found in the median aspect of the hard palate associated with the incisive foramen between the cingulums of the maxillary central incisors. Nasopalatine duct cysts appear clinically as palatal swellings that are asymptomatic.
What is the preferred method for visualizing the TMJ?
MRI, followed by CBCT
Do pantomographs help?
No, because they only show hard tissues
When is the best indicated time for making the first bitewing radiograph of a clinically caries free child?
after the closure of spaces between the posterior teeth.
What is the Stafne Defect?
a depression located along the lingual surface of the mandible that is near the tongue and the submandibular salivary gland. IT LITERALLY SITS BELOW THE MANDIBULAR CANAL
How does the lesion look for Stafne bone defect?
It is a well-demarcated radiolucency that is approximately 1-3.5 cm in diameter.
Where does the depression come from?
ectopically formed salivary gland tissue that is near the submandibular gland..... S and S... STAFNE and Salivary
Where is the most common location of an odontogenic keratocyst?
the posterior body of the mandible and ramus. It usually presents with a cortical border unless it becomes secondarily infected. The cyst may have a smooth (round or oval shape), or a scalloped outline
What is often seen with ameloblastoma lesions?
What is Osteogenesis Imperfects (OI)?
a common congenital bone disorder. Patients are born with DEFECTIVE CONNECTIVE TISSUE or lack the ability to make it, typically because of a collagen deficiency. The condition is suggested radiographically by a thin bone cortex, BULBOUS CROWNS, OBLITERATED PULPS, and SHORTENED TOOTH ROOTS.
What is OI type 1?
the COLLAGEN IS NORMAL but produced in INSUFFICIENT QUANTITIES. The patient has blue sclera and bones that fracture easily
What is OI type 2?
the collagen lacks both QUALITY AND QUANTITY. Patients have severe respiratory problems due to underdeveloped lungs, severe bone deformity, and small stature. Most patients die within the first year of life from respiratory failure or intracerebral hemorrhage.
What is Gardner syndrome?
shows the presence of UNERUPTED SUPERNUMARY TEETH IN THE JAWS on radiographic examination. X rays also depict the presence of osteomas of the mandible.
What is Amelogenesis imperfects?
hereditary disorders of enamel formation affecting both deciduous and permanent teeth. Teeth become chalky white, yellow or brownish. Proximal contact areas are mostly open, while occlusal surfaces and incisal edges are severely abraded. Radiographic examination shows the variable thickness and radiodensity of enamel. The radiodensity of enamel is greater than dentin in hypoplastic AI.
Tooth extraction in patients who have previously received radiotherapy more than six months ago may pose greater risk for what?
Osteoradionecrosis occurs in patients who have what?
amaged blood vessels because the blood needed for bone healing cannot circulate properly to heal the wound.
Osteoradionecrosis disrupts what?
normal blood circulation within the bone, causing severe damage to the blood vessels by endarteritis and thrombosis that eventually results in the blockage or obliteration of the blood flow. Osteoradionecrosis is more likely to occur in cases in which bone is exposed during radiation
Why are oral mucosal tissues more affected by radiation than alveolar bone?
They exhibit a more rapid turnover
Radiation causes what to the cells?
free radical formation and immature development of cells that are supposedly needed for the remodeling and healing of body tissues.
What will exhibit the earliest radiographic changes in periodontal breakdown process?
Fuzziness of the interproximal alveolar crests
Excessive amount of x-ray exposure to the patients hand will result in what?
Erythema or reddening of the skin. Exposure to x-ray radiation exceeding the safer zone of exposure can cause tissue damage over the top epithelial layer, comparable with sunburn damage. The damaged skin will elicit erythema, and its effect may last for a few weeks.
What is Osteosarcoma?
a form of bone cancer that predominantly occurs in children and teenagers. The reason for the occurrence of osteosarcomas is still unknown at present
How do osteosarcomas appear?
a solid, indurated swelling that can be distinguished in radiographs as appearing MOTH-EATEN or having a SUNBURST appearance. The sunburst appearance is due to the calcified tumor spicules that radiate outward from the bone.
What things on radiographs indicate a history of physical trauma
Funneling and widening of lamina dura
Vascular infiltration of the PDL is NOT SEEN in radiographs
Dentigerous cysts are also known as what?
follicular cysts and only occur along the crown area of a partially erupted or unerupted tooth.
Incorrect horizontal angulation on radiographs causes what?
overlapping of images and is seen as an error on bitewing radiographs.
Vertical angulation causes what?
elongated or foreshortened images.
What is a Median palatal cyst?
It is a rare fissural cyst and develops from epithelium entrapped along the embryonic line of fusion of lateral palatal shelves of the maxilla. Occlusal radiographs show well-circumscribed radiolucency in the midline of the hard palate
What is Lateral Periodontal Cyst?
arise from the epithelial rest of Malassez, a remnant of odontogenesis. Lateral periodontal cysts are usually not associated with pain, and they usually appear as a unilocular radiolucency on the side of the canines or premolar roots. They are most commonly seen in the mandibular bicuspid area. The involved tooth is usually vital and presents no indication for root canal treatment unless the signs of nonvital or necrotic pulpal tissue were confirmed. Lateral periodontal cysts are typically treated by surgical enucleation.
What is External Root resporption?
Root resorption is associated with either a physiologic or a pathologic process resulting in a loss of dentin, cementum, or alveolar bone. It can be initiated in the periodontium and affects the external surfaces of the tooth (external resorption), or it may start within the pulp space affecting the internal dentin surfaces primarily (internal resorption)
What is a gingival abscess?
A Gingival abscess is a localized purulent infection that involves the marginal gingiva or interdental papilla. It is an acute inflammatory response to foreign substances forced into the gingiva. Clinical features include localized swelling of the marginal gingiva, red, smooth, shiny surface, purulent exudate, and pain.
What is a periapical granuloma?
It is a chronic inflammatory lesion predominantly affecting a non-vital tooth. It is located at the apices of involved teeth. It comprises of granulation and scar tissue permeated by different inflammatory cells. The most commonly detected cells are the lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages, and mast cells.
What is periodontal abscess?
It is a localized purulent infection that affects the tissues adjacent to the periodontal pockets that may lead to the destruction of periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. It is more likely to develop within a pre-existing periodontal pocket. It predominantly involves molars.
What are Antrolights?
calcified lesions or masses that are usually located along the maxillary sinus.
What are Osteomas?
radiopaque benign lesions or bone growth within a membranous bone.
How do you dictate Traumatic bone cyst?
Radiographic images of a traumatic cyst display a well-circumscribed radiolucency that usually SCALLOPS between the roots of teeth
Which materials appear most opaque on radiographs?
Periapcial radiolucencies can only be visualized after what?
the alveolar bone surrounding the root apex is destroyed and the infection extends into the cancellous bone.
The lamina dura surrounding the perioapical aspect of a tooth is considered what type of bone?
cortical bone but is more commonly called the alveolar bone proper, and as long as this bone is intact, a periapical radiolucency is not evident radiographically.
Periodical radiolucencies are evidence of what'/
Bone destruction that extends into the cancellous bone supporting the tooth
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