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3 intracellular sodium ions for 2 extracellular potassium ions.
At the normal resting potential of a typical neuron, its ion exchange pump transports
The effect of a particular neurotransmitter is dependent upon the properties of the ________, not the ________.
Neurons in which dendritic and axonal processes are continuous and the soma lies off to one side are called
action potentials occur at successive nodes along the length of the stimulated axon.
During saltatory conduction
all stimuli great enough to bring the membrane to threshold will produce identical action potentials
The all-or-none principle states that
directing activities that continue for extended periods, such as growth and pregnancy.
Each of the following is a function of the nervous system, except
The proper sequence of these events is
4, 5, 7, 3, 6, 1, 2.
The following is a list of the steps that occur during transmission at an adrenergic synapse.
1. cAMP activate enzyme that open the chemically regulated Na+ channel
2.Norepinephrine is activated by the enzyme COMT.
3.Norepinephrine binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane
4.An action potential depolarizes the synaptic knob
5.Calcium ion enter the synaptic know
6.cAMP is activated
7. Norepinephrine is released from the presynaptic know
The myelin sheaths that surround the axons of some of the neurons in the CNS are formed by
Each of the following is an example of a neuroeffector junction, except the junction between a neuron and a(n)
The part of the peripheral nervous system that brings information to the central nervous system is
The correct sequence for these events is
4, 2, 6, 7, 1, 8, 3, 5.
The following are the steps involved in transmission at a cholinergic synapse
1. Chemically regulated Na+ channel on the postsynaptic membrane are activated
2. Calcium ions enter the synaptic knob
3.Acetycholine is degraded by acethycholinesterase
4.An action potetial depolarize the synaptic knob at the presynaptic membrane
5.The synaptic knob absorb choline
6. Acetycholine is released from storage vesicle by exocytosis
7. Acetycholine binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane
8.Calcium ions are removed by the cytoplasm of the synaptic knob.
the characteristics of the receptors.
The effect that a neurotransmitter has on the postsynaptic membrane depends on
change the type of neurotransmitter found in the synaptic vesicle
Which of the following is not a possible drug effect on synaptic function?
Axons crossing from one side of the spinal cord to the other within the gray matter are found in the
Sensory and motor innervations of the skin of the sides and front of the body are provided by the:
diagnosing bacterial and viral infections of the nervous system, samples of cerebrospinal fluid are extracted for analysis. This procedure would logically withdraw fluid for analysis from the
show wide variability in response
All of the following are true of neural reflexes, EXCEPT that they:
bundles of axons that share commor origins, destinations, and functions
The white matter of the spinal cord contains:
The reflex that complements a withdrawal reflex by making compensatory adjustments on the opposite side of the body receiving the stimulus is the ________ reflex
The _____ of each spinal nerve provides sensory and motor innervation to the skin and muscles of the back.
Regions of the brain that are involved in interpreting data or coordinating motor respoonses are called ________ areas.
able to see letters quite clearly but unable to recognize or interpret them
A person with a damaged visual association area may be:
use scissors to cut out a picture
Damage to the premotor cortex of the frontal lobe would interfere with the ability to:
Abstract intellectual functions such as predicting the consequences of a particular response occur in the:
After suffering a stroke, Mary finds that she cannot move her right arm. This would suggest that the stroke damage is in the area of the ________ lobe
The thin partition that separates the first and second (lateral) ventricles is the:
Overseeing the postural muscles of the body and making rapid adjustments to maintain balance and equilibrium are functions of the:
What contains a delicate network of collagen and elastin fibers through which cerebrospinal fluid circulates?
result in hydrocephalus
A tumor that blocks the interventricular foramen in the left cerebral hemisphere would:
Major centers concerned with autonomic control of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate and digestive activities are located in the:
Nerve fibers bundles on the ventrolateral surface of the mesencephalon (midbrain) are the;
Compression of a cranial nerve by a tumor causes a loss of tongue movement. Which cranial nerve is affected?
In the parasympathetic division, preganglionic fibers are _______ and postganglionic fibers are _______.
Groups of second-order neurons that innervate organs in the abdominopelvic region are called ________ ganglia.
In the sympathetic division, perganglionic fibers are _______ and postganglionic fibers are ________.
Groups of second-order sympathetic neurons lying along either side of the spinal cord are called ________ ganglia.
an increase in vessel diameter
A decrease in the autonomic tone of the smooth muscle in blood vessels would result in:
Neurons of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system release the neurotransmitter ________ at their effectors
decreased heart rate
Each of the following effects is associated with the action of postganglioic sympathetic fibers, EXCEPT:
dilation of the respiratory passageway
Parasympathetic activities include all of the following, EXCEPT the:
The division of the autonomic nervous system that maintains homeostasis during resting conditions is the ________ division
sympathetic stimulation is increased
Autonomic tone of peripheral blood vessels would be greatest when:
Specialized second-order neurons of the sympathetic nervous system that release neurotransmitters into the bloodstream are located in the:
lateral gray horns of segments T1 to L2 of the spinal cord
Preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system are located in the:
eustacian tube (pharyngotympanic tube)
structure that allows the middle ear to communicate with the nasopharynx is the:
Organ of Corti
The middle ear collects sound waves and transmits them to the inner ear, which contains the _________
for converting sound waves into nerve impulses.
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