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Arts and Humanities
History Test: Ancient Rome
Test on Friday December 4 (look over Ancient Rome outline)
Terms in this set (64)
According to Historians, who is the father of Christianity?
Paul is the father of Christianity according to historians.
Where was Paul born?
What did Saul participate in?
The perseuction of Christians - he traveled city to city persecuting Christians.
What was Paul known as prior to the conversion?
Saul of Tarsus.
Why was it important that Paul was a Roman citizen?
He had the ability to use Romes resources and had safety. He then used this to spread the Gospel.
What man led the defense of Greek colonies against Roman expansion in southern Italy?
The Greek colonies feared Roman conquest and appealed to Pyrrhus, a distant relative of Alexander the Great, for help.
From the description of the Greek historian Polybius, list the diffrences between Carthage and Rome at the outset of the Punic Wars.
Carthage: Superior at sea in both effiency and equipment, strong navy, the troops the Carthaginians employ are foreign and mercenary (hired for pay), Carthage's political system is less than that of Rome, the Carthaginians continue to depend for the maintenance of their freedom on the courage of mercenary force, they eventually loose.
Rome: As regards to military service on land the Romans are more efficient (better army), the troops of the Romans are native of the soil and citizens, the political system of Rome is superior than that of Carthage, freedom for the Romans depend on their own valour and on the aid of their allies, the Romans redeem defeat by final success, for the Romans fighting as they are for their country and their Children they fight with their whole hearts to beat the enemy.
Over what island was the First Punic War fought?
What famed Carthaginian leader invaded Rome by an unexpected march over the Alps into northern Italy?
A young Carthaginian commander named Hannibal.
At what battle during the Second Punic War did the Roman General Scipio decisively defeat the Carthaginians making Rome the master of the western Mediterranean world?
At the Battle of Zama. (202 B.C.)
What was the period of peace in the Mediteranean world lasting from 31 B.C. to 130 A.D. called?
This period was known as the Pax Romana.
List three titles or names by which Octavian was called.
1. Princeps or "first citizen"
What did Octavian institute within the empire in order to provide for fairer taxing of provinces? How often did he order this to take place?
To provide fairer methods of taxing the provinces, Augustus ordered a census-taking throughout the Empire every 14 years.
How did many of the self-seeking, corrupt emperors of the late empire win the favor of the people?
The Emporers won popular favor by providing "free" grain and amusements for the people of Rome.
What were the names of the two brothers who became spokesman for reform in the later days of the republic?
The two brothers were Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus.
Who were the two generals who fought in the First Civil War? Identify which one had the backing of the Senate and which one the backing of the Tribal Assembly.
The two generals were Marius and Sulla. The Tribal assembly backed Marius and the Senate backed Sulla.
Who were the three rulers of the triumvirate?
The three rulers were Crassus, Pompey, and Caesar.
In what battle and year did Octavian defeat Antony in the Third Civil War?
In 31 B.C. Octavian beat Antony at the battle of Actium.
In what ways is it true to say that "all roads lead to Rome"?
The Romans constructed a network of roads that connected the far corners of their vast empire with their capital city. It could literally be said all roads lead to Rome. Rome was a culmination of ancient civilizations. The roads of God's plan for the age also leads to Rome. The Roads built in Rome also lasted till the present.
Outline the steps by which the plebeians gained a voice in the Roman government.
As far as we know, the kings were elected by the people. The kings could gain advice on official matters from a council of clan leaders known as the senate. A popular assembly that represented the people at large also existed. It elected and bestowed the imperium on the kings.
What do you think were the strengths and weaknesses of the Roman Republic?
They had a strong military and were forceful. They also had a strong centralized government. They had weak humanistic ideals. They did not have a strong foundation so they crumbled.
What did the Romans call the Mediterranean Sea?
Mare Nostrum (our sea)
In what year was the city of Rome founded?
Who were the two brothers that founded Rome?
Romulus and Remus
What were the 2 social classes in Rome?
Patricians- noble and rich
Plebeians- poor and working class
In what year was the Roman Republic founded?
What was the most powerful body within the governmental structure of the republic?
What was the name of the Roman law that was written down and placed in the Roman Forum?
The law of the 12 tables
What was the name of the plebeian assembly?
The name of the Plebeian assembly was Concilium Plebis.
What became the symbol of the king's authority in early Roman society?
A small bundle of rods which enclosed an axe, called the fasces, symbolized his power.
What power did the tribunes get to excercise over unjust acts of patrian officials?
Veto "I forbid"
What were the centers if worship called for the Jews who were scattered abroad?
Seperated from the temple in Jerusalem, these "scatterred" Jews built new centers of worship called synagogues.
What two events greatly aided the spread of Christianity beyond its Jewish cradle?
1. The conversion of Paul
2. The Roman destruction of Jerusalem
What Emporer made Christianity a legal religion in the Empire? What made emporer made Christianity the official relgion of the Empire?
Emporer Constantine made Chrisianity legal and Emperor Theodosius I made it the official religion of Rome.
What heresy challenged the deity of Christ? At what council in 325 was the truth of Christ's deity affirmed?
A hertic named Arius challenged the diety of Christ and disrupted unity in the church. In 325, the Council of Nicaea affirmed Christ's diety and banded Arianism heresy.
What were the pastor/bishops of the most important cities called? list these four cities.
The largest administrative districts of the Church were the patriarchates. The patriarchs were the bishops of the most important cities of the empire Jerusalem, Alexandria, Rome, and Constantinople.
Name the three ways in which Rome was weakened during the 3rd century?
1. Economics: relied on trade, disrupted, caused civil unrest and poor harvest. Devaluation of Roman money and loss of confidence in civil government. Rome no longer received plunder from foreign wars; also there were no new slvaes to boost the economy. High taxes.
2. Military: Numbers declined due to losses/a loosing army, cuts in funding affected proper training & equipment, lower monthly pay for troops , the government begins to hire mercenaries - soldiers abandoning their posts, civil wars erupt over military leaders fighting for power.
3. Political: Government weakened by corruption as politicians fought for power, government systems strained by immense size, an Emporer split the kingdom in half and poor successors unable to govern both halves of the kingdom lead to civil unrest (the west at its worst experienced 50 emporers in 50 years).
What 2 strong emperor's briefly stem Rome's fall?
1. Emperor Diocletian
2. Emperor Constantine
Who was Emperor Diocletian? What did he do for Rome?
Emperor Dicoletian was born the son of a slave. With his vision, patriotism, and courage he helped Rome. He doubled the size of the army and secured the borders. He fixed the wages and prices which puts an end to inflation. We brought polythiestic worship back to Rome which temporarily helped them.
Who was Emperor Constantine? What did he do for Rome?
Emperor Constantine was a very wise ruler. He claims the vision of the cross, before his victory over his rival which influences him to legalize Christianity. Christianity then helps Rome move away from their wickedness.
What does apostle mean?
Messenger of God, leader of his church
What does disciple mean?
Follower of God
Historically, why should have Christianity failed?
- founded by a jewish carpenters son
- not of royalty
- not from the rich
- 3 short years
- fishermen (closes cabinet)
- geographical influence was reserved to a small area
- taught a message of love
- monotheistic - added to the jewish Bible
- Common people & slaves
- look at the heart, dont judge by ones class
What is Christianity based on?
Teachings of Jesus
What were the two great commandments?
love God and love others
Who were most of the early Christians? How did early persecution help them? How did being Jewish help them?
Most converts of the early church was the Jews. Early Jewish toughened the early Christian converts. Seeing as they were Jewish they used that and it prevented the early Christian converts from being absorbed into Pagan Rome.
What three civilizations were used by God to spread Christianity and establish His kingdom?
1. Israel - Character, because of the Jews character they held fast to their beliefs which eventually helped the early Christians
2. Rome - Roads, because of the Roman roads Paul and the early church could spread the Gospel easier
3. Greece - Language, because of the Greeks humanistic writing and society God could use their language to reach all types of people and bond with those who had not heard of him before.
Did Rome have religious liberty?
No, Rome had religious toleration not liberty.
Describe the relationship between the Jews and the Romans.
Because of Roman ocupation the Jews kings were puppet kings. They were allowed to rule in the name and in the place of Rome's name. The Sanhedrin was powerful in the Jews world but it reported still to Rome.
What did the Romans gradually convert to?
What led Rome to convert?
By 200 A.D. what happened?
10% of the Roman empire converted
What do followers in government do?
What does Rome become the center of?
Who was the chief bishop?
What does the leadership of the church fall to?
Who defended Rome against invaders?
Scipio defended them
When was the second rebellion and what happened?
It was in 70 A.D., half a million Jews were killed, and the Jews were enslaved and transported in chains.
What did most of Massada's inhabitants do to themselves and why?
Committed suicide because they would rather die a free man than live as Roman slaves.
Because Christianity was so hated in Rome, what did the Romans do to the Christians?
They were made scapegoats and murdered for entertainment. Many became martyrs, dying for their faith. Wrapped in tar and used as a torch, thrown to beasts for entertainment.
What did Christians do so that they could still worship God?
They met in catacombs, they were willing to meet where people were buried in order to praise God.
what did the Romans demand to be built and what are they centered on?
Temples that are centered on emporer worship.
What was the four fold solution the Jews came up with?
By 66 A.D. what did the Zealots lead to?
Rebellion against Rome. The result is that Rome besieged and captured Jerusalem.
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