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Zanzot 1020 Exam 4
Terms in this set (86)
descent with modification
is evolution pattern or process?
Aristotle viewed species as fixed and arranged them on a...
Linnaeus founded what branch of biology?
brach of biology concerned with classifying organisms
remains or traces of organisms from the past, usually found in sedimentary rock
layers of sedimentary rock that fossils can be found in
the study of fossils, developed by George Cuvier
the speculation that each boundary between strata represents a catastrophe
states that the mechanisms of change are constant
the mechanisms of descent with modification; the process in which individuals with favorable inherited traits are more likely to survive and reproduce
the process of selecting and breeding certain individuals with desired traits via human modification
Darwin's first observation
members of a population often vary in their inherited traits
Darwin's second observation
all species can produce more offspring than the environment can support, and many of these offspring fail to survive and reproduce
Darwin's first inference
individuals who inherited traits give them a higher probability of surviving and reproducing in a given environment tend to leave more offspring than other individuals
Darwin's second inference
this unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce will lead to the accumulation of favorable traits in the population over generations
True or false: individuals evolve
False, populations evolve
similarity resulting from common ancestry
hypothesis about the relationships among different groups; Darwin wrote about these in his journal
evolution of similar, analogous, features in distantly related groups; demonstrates how similar traits can be adaptive in similar biomes
the geographic distribution of species
species found nowhere else in the world
a change in allele frequencies in a population over generations; it is driven by two random factors and one non-random factor
what three mechanisms drive microevolution?
natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow
discrete heritable units
the product of inherited genotype and environmental influences
measures the average percent of loci that are heterozygous in a population
differences between gene pools of separate populations
a graded change in a trait along a geographical axis
change in one base gene
no change in amino acid
change in amino acid
change to STOP codon
a localized group of individuals capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring
consists of all the alleles for all loci in a population
occurs when all individuals in a population are homozygous for the same allele
states that frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a population remain constant from generation to generation
what five conditions for non-evolving populations are rarely met in nature?
no mutations, random mating, no natural selection, extremely large population size, no gene flow
describes how allele frequencies fluctuate unpredictably from one generation to the next
occurs when a few individuals become isolated from a larger population
a sudden reduction in population size due to a change in the environment
consists of the movement of alleles among populations
True or False: natural selection is the only mechanism that consistently causes adaptive evolution
factors individuals at one end of the phenotypic range
favors at both extremes of the phenotypic range
favors intermediate variants and acts against extreme phenotypes
natural selection for mating success
marked differences between the sexes in secondary sexual characteristics
genetic variation that does not confer a selective advantage or disadvantage
occurs when natural selection maintains stable frequencies of two or more phenotypic forms in a population
occurs when heterozygotes have a higher fitness than do both homozygotes
frequency dependent selection
the fitness of a phenotype declines if it becomes too common in the population
the origin of new species
the existence of biological factors that impede two species from producing viable, fertile offspring
the offspring of crosses between different species
block fertilization from occuring
what three ways do pre-zygotic barriers block fertilization
1. impede different species from attempting to mate
2. preventing the successful completion of mating
3. hindering fertilization if mating is successful
post zygotic barriers
prevent the hybrid zygote from developing into a viable, fertile adult
what two ways do speciation occur?
allopatric speciation, sympatric speciation
occurs when gene flow is interrupted or reduced when a population is divided into geographically isolated subpopulations
when speciation takes place in geographically overlapping populations
the presence of extra sets of chromosomes due to accidents during cell division
and individual with more than two chromosome sets
a species with multiple sets of chromosomes derived from different species
a region in which members of different species mate and produce hybrids
describes periods of apparent stasis punctuated by sudden change
discovered paleontology and catastrophism
Hutton and Lyell
discovered geology and uniformitarianism
discovered evolution by means of acquired characteristics
discovered population growth in humans
A R Wallace
discovered biogeography and had similar ideas to Darwin
ship that Darwin voyaged on for 5 years
What two random factors drive microevolution?
genetic drift and gene flow
what non-random factor drives microevolution?
Earth's single large continent, but have since separated by continental drift
Which phrase best summarizes Darwin's theory of evolution?
descent with modification
which was not explained by Darwin's theory of life?
the origin of life
what fish is endemic to Alabama?
watercrest darter; found in Black Warrior river
what is Alabama's state fossil?
basilosaurus; ancestor to modern whales and dolphins
Which researchers did NOT influence Darwin's ideas about natural selection?
what contribute to a line of evidence for evolution?
direct observation of natural selection, homology, the fossil record, biogeography
True or false: Darwin's book included the word "evolution"
false, he included the word evolved
what is not a random process?
which of these is NOT an assumption of the Hardy-Weinberg equation?
constant population size
the phenomenon of similar structures in organisms that do not share recent common ancestry is called
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