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Biology Final Exam Review
Terms in this set (277)
which of the following is true and explains why carbon is an important component of living things:
Carbon can form 4 covalent bonds
John is studying small single-celled organisms that lack nuclei. These organisms can be broadly classified into the domain-
Two carbon atoms join to each other by the sharing of two pairs of electrons form a(an)
double covalent bond
You are running a race and begin to sweat. you know that the sweating is your body's attempt to help maintain your body temperature and is an example of
which statement best explains why humans can digest starch, but not cellulose
in cellulose and starch, the sugars are connected by different linkages c) cellulose is highly branched, starch is not
Your microwave will not turn on, and you believe it is a problem with the circuit breaker. so you decide to do an experiment. you go to the switchbox and start switching all of the circuit breakers on and off. your roommates want to help you, and while you are doing this one of them unplugs and then plugs the microwave again in the wall socket. another roommate changes the fuse in the microwave cord. the microwave is now working, but now you don't know what was wrong with it in the first place. the scientific reason you do now know this is:
You did not only change only one variable at a time, allowing for proper controls to be done
relatively small organic molecules with a central carbon atom which is bonded to a carboxyl group, an amino group, a carbon containing group, and a hydrogen atom are called:
which is the correct difference between DNA and RNA :
DNA contains Thymine ; RNA contains Uracil
which if the following does NOT have a double membrane?
water molecules are polar ends that exhibit partial positive and negative charges. these opposite charges allow water molecules to attract each other through
which two carbohydrates have very different functions:
glycogen and cellulose
a distinctive feature of eukaryotes is the organization of tightly packed chromosomal DNA with proteins into a membrane-bound structure called a
which of the following is the process by which DNA is made into a RNA copy?
a bobcat is feeding on a white-tailed deer. it first eats the liver, which is rich in stored sugars. in what form would sugar be stored in the deer's liver?
Egg whites consist primarily of water and the protein albumin. When you fry an egg, why does the egg white turn from clear to white?
the protein becomes unfolded and denatured
which of the following statements are true:
in a nonpolar covalent bond there is an equal sharing of electrons between two atoms while polar covalent bonds involve an unequal sharing of electrons.
the number of protons in a given atom is equal to its
which of the following structures is also found in prokaryotes?
thinking question: base pairing rules in nucleic acids mean that a cell with 20% of the nucleotides having Guanine would have how much Adenine?
Which four elements make up approximately 96% of the human body weight?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen
the high heat of vaporization of water helps you to feel cooler when you sweat because the transition of water from a liquid to a gas requires ______ of energy by water to break hydrogen bonds. the energy ______ heat produced by your body, thus helping to lower the surface temperature of your body.
absorption ; comes from
Carbon-12, carbon-13, and carbon-14 are examples of:
the energy of an electron :
is increased in electron shells further from the nucleus
your microwave will not turn on, and you speculate that a circuit breaker in the house has been tripped. in scientific terminology, the steps you have taken so far would be described as:
developing a hypothesis based on an observation
what characteristic would the R groups of amino acids likely have if they are located within the interior (passing through between bilayers) of biological membranes?
the R groups would hydrophobic
which of the following is a tenets of the cell theory?
cells carry genetic material that is passed to daughter cells during regular cellular division
In the crystal matrix of ordinary salt, the sodium and chlorine are held together by:
which of the following statements is true for both DNA and RNA
they contain phosphate groups on their respective nucleotides
the myoglobin protein has only the first three levels of protein structure. what can you infer about myoglobin?
myoglobin is made of only one polypeptide chain
by the definition that we discussed in class, the virus that causes COVID-19 is considered a living thing?
an electrically neutral atom has 20 electrons, 20 protons, and 20 neutrons. what is the mass of this atom in atomic mass units?
Hierarchial Levels of organization in living things result in
what type of filament is the filament that is made of actin?
which of the following has the least influence the extent or kinetics of chemical reaction:
If you were to replace the phosphate group of a phospholipid with a fatty acid chain, you would have
which is not true about carbon-carbon double bonds in phospholipids?
they make the melting temperature higher
You recently discovered a new element, and find that this particular element has one electron its outer energy level. What would you expect will happen to an atom of this element if placed in water?
it will lose an electron forming a positive ion
All atoms tend to fill their outer energy levels with the maximum number of electrons, usually eight. Depending on whether atoms satisfy the octet rule will predict:
the chemical behavior of the atoms
Gingko trees are known to lose their leaves at a certain time each year. Based on this information, you realize that gingko trees in china lose their leaves at the same time as those in the united states. this is an example of
what is the double membrane structure that delivers cargo to the lysosome fir degradation:
if an animal has a bill, has webbed feet, and lays eggs, then it is (very likely) a duck. this statement is an example of
which of the following cellular structures is largely associated with the synthesis of fatty acids?
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
a lysosome aids cell immunity and protection because it is:
contains lysozymes, proteases, and other hydrolases which digest bacteria
why was the determination of the actual sequence of the human genome considered to be descriptive science?
it involved hypothesis-driven research
a well-founded body of generally accepted and often interconnected concepts often supported by different kinds of experimental data is:
choose the word pair that fills in the blanks in the following sentence. ___________ is the process by which an mRNA is made into a protein by ______________.
translation ; the ribosome
what type of filament is the primary filament that is used to transport microvesicles in cells?
a single statement or equation that is a well accepted descriptive generalization about how the natural world behaves under stated circumstances is a :
chaperone proteins have the function of:
helping proteins fold
the simplest an the most common monosaccharide is a six-carbon sugar called:
many antibiotics selectively kill bacteria and not mammalian cells because they block synthesis of the :
the reactivity of a given atom is largely determined by:
the number of valence electrons
the area around a nucleus where an electron is most likely found is the
which of the following are not made by a dehydration reaction
all of the previous molecules are made by dehydration synthesis
which of the following cellular structures has the function of the "post office" of the cell (modifies and packages things to be sent outside of the cell)?
which is a false statement with regard to the similarities or differences between eukaryotes and prokaryotes:
only prokaryotes have cell walls
john is studying small single-celled organisms that lack nuclei. john's single cell organisms that lack nuclei can also be described as:
what are the four main classes of macromolecules that make up living things:
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
which of the following reactions is a dehydration reaction?
A + B --> C + H2O
Sudan IV, a dye that binds to nonpolar molecules, is used to detect the presence of macromolecules in food. Sudan IV would test positive in the presence of what macromolecule?
the specific amino acid sequence of a protein is its
an alpha helix is a kind of:
The method of reasoning that uses construction of general principles by careful examination of many specific cases is called
biological membranes contain bilayers that are mostly made of:
what are the products of pyruvate oxidation that are generated from one glucose molecule?
2 Acetyl-CoA + 2 CO2 + 2 NADH
what types of cell junctions involve portions of the smooth ER shared between two plant cells?
which term describes the disorder of a system?
cardiac muscle cells are connected intercalated discs, which provide strength between cells of tissues which exhibit high mechanical stress, strong flexible connections between tissue cells, and electrical excitability between the cells. using this information, which junctions are present in intercalated discs?
gap, adherens, and desmosomes
what type of cell junction involve connections between the intermediate filament of two cells?
where is the chlorophyll located in a plant?
which of the following is made during the light reactions of photosynthesis?
ATP and NADPH
at the end of photosynthesis, where do the oxygen atoms that are in the O2 that is produced come from?
the amount of energy from a chemical reaction that is available to do work is called?
gibb's free energy
CAM and C4 plants evolved to deal with what type of environment?
hot and arid
a man on a bicycle starts from a standstill on top of the hill and then rides to the bottom of the hill without pedaling. what is not true about energetic processes during the downward ride?
the kinetic energy is mostly converted into potential energy
When substrate-level phosphorylation occurs, it means that:
ADP is converted into ATP by the addition of a phosphate group
How would a marine organism cope with the high salinity of sea water?
increase internal solute concentration to match seawater
How are transmembrane proteins held in the correct position in the membrane (keeping them from sliding through to the other side of the membrane)?
the hydrophobic domain is held in place by hydrophobic exclusion
bacteria do cyclical photophosphorylation because they cannot steal an electron from water. what feature best explains why plants are able to do non-cyclical photophosphorylation by stealing an electron from water?
the presence of manganese atoms in the reaction center in photosystem II
which of the following is a direct end-product of the process of glycolysis?
as electrons move along the transport chain in mitochondria, they lose potential energy. what is this energy immediately used to do?
the energy is used to transport protons against their concentration gradient
which macromolecule generates the most ATP per unit of mass?
which molecule carries energy with it in the form if high energy phosphate bonds:
the role of the antenna complex in a photosystem is to:
capture photons from sunlight
what type of transport protein can move 2 different molecules in different directions?
GABA receptors play an essential role in neurotransmission in the central nervous system. in response to the appropriate signal, these receptors open up a hole in its middle and allow Cl- to flow into the cell. given this information, GABA receptors can be classified as a
gated ion channel
at the end of one set of the light cycle reactions, one ATP and one NADPH are produced. the chloroplast needs 1/2 additional ATP per NADPH to fix carbon. where does the extra ATP come from?
chloroplast anatomy: a molecule outside of a plant cell would have to pass how many lipid bilayers in order to enter the inside of thylakoid lumen (inside the thylakoid discs) of a chloroplast?
cardiac muscle has prolonged contraction due to a sodium induced-calcium released process into the cytoplasm of the cell. which is mediated by communication through pore-like channels between cells. what is this type of cell junction involved in the process?
which of the following processes is common to all living cells
in animals that take in oxygen from their environment, glucose is broken down into carbon dioxide and water in a process called
which process does a macrophage (a kind of white blood cell) use to engulf and destroy a bacteria?
what are the three phases of the calvin cycle?
carbon fixation, reduction, regeneration of RuBP
the law of thermodynamics that states that increases in entropy are favored is the:
second law of thermodynamics
aerobic respiration involves the transfer of electrons from glucose to carriers such as NAD+ over a lengthy series of steps. why do cells prefer multistep oxidation processes?
all of the above are true
the energy that is required to start a spontaneous reaction is:
what are the products generated by the krebs cycle per one molecule of glucose:
4 CO2, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 ATP
chlorophylls absorb which colors (wavelengths) of light?
violet, blue, and red
in plant photosynthesis, which component is mostly responsible for the generation of NADPH?
glucose is broken down through cellular respiration, which involves a large number of chemical reactions. at the end of the cellular respiration process, a large number of ATP molecules generated, yet not all pf the possible energy that is contained in a molecule of glucose can be harnessed through these chemical reactions to generate ATP. in other words, during cellular respiration, not all of the energy that is contained in a molecule is converted into the energy stored in ATP. the remaining energy is:
lost as heat
using the calvin cycle, how many ATP and NADPH are used to create a glucose molecule?
18 ATP, 12 NADPH
molecules that absorb light are called:
the enzyme that catalyzes carbon fixation in the calvin cycle is:
what is the main difference between C4 and CAM plants?
CAM plants take in carbon dioxide in the night and store it in the vacuole until the daytime
intestinal cells are stitched together such that few, if any molecules are able to squeeze between them? the type of cell junction that is responsible for this effect are:
tight (septate) junctions
the transport of glucose in one case uses a transporter that utilizes a generated Na+ gradient to move glucose against its concentration gradient. which of the following is true concerning this transport event:
the transporter is a symporter that facilitates coupled transport
what is the final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration?
the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration is -
what type of cell junctions involve connections between the actin cytoskeletons of two cells?
a substance that binds to an enzyme at the activation site and decreases its activity is:
a competitive inhibitor
phosphofructokinase, an early enzyme in glycolysis, is inhibited by a number of factors, including high levels of the end product ATP, which binds at a site distinct from the active site. this is an example of:
what are the net products of glycolysis per molecule of glucose:
2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 Pyruvate
the term for heat content in chemical bonds is:
oxidation and reduction reactions are chemical processes that result in a gain or loss of
If you were a very thirsty cell, which process would you use to take in some nutrients secreted by one of your neighbors?
biological membranes contain bilayers that are mostly made of ______
the aquatic plant elodea is commonly used to study photosynthesis. you put some elodea in a test tube filled with heavy water that has been radiolabeled with oxygen 18 (H2180), shine light on the test tube, and measure the rate of photosynthesis by counting oxygen bubbles released. at the end of your experiment , you would find the most radiolabeled oxygen in
molecular oxygen (O2)
All of the reactions of cellular respiration that occur after glycolysis take place in what part of the eukaryotic cell?
the movement of water molecules across a membrane is:
the law of thermodynamics that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed is the
first law of thermodynamics
a reaction will always occur spontaneously if:
the chain in gibb's free energy (DeltaG) is < 0
what high-energy molecule is the final product of photosynthesis?
the ultimate source of energy for humans comes from what source?
what is the component of photosynthesis that acts as a proton pump?
the b6-f complex
if ATP production is blocked, decreased transport of material across a membrane occurs. what type of transport is affected?
which of the following is not a molecule directly involved in the reaction processes of fermentation?
what molecule is not produced during the full process of photosynthesis (including the calvin cycle)?
some of the glycoproteins on a cell's surface are identity markers. what would happen if the cell did not possess these particular molecules?
the immune system would attack the cell
permeability refers to ---
the extent a membrane allows a substance to pass through
red blood cells are put in a 5 molar hypertonic solution. what happens to the cells?
water rushes out so they shrink
how do cellular biosystems get energonic (DeltaG > 0) reactions to occur?
they couple nonspontaneous reactions to spontaneous ones.
as the entropy (DeltaS) increases which of the following is likely to be true:
the free energy (DeltaG) is more likely to be negative
A particular reaction has a negative delta G. However, this reaction takes many years to proceed without an enzyme. Why is this the case?
a certain amount of activation energy is required for the reaction to proceed. the enzyme lowers the activation energy
which two molecules both carry energy with them solely in the form of electrons (+ a proton):
NADH and NADPH
when an atom or molecule gains one or more electrons, it is said to be ________
A particular chemical reaction is exergonic. What can you say about the relationship between the reactants and the products in this exergonic reaction?
the reactants have more free energy than the products
why are plants green?
Chlorophyll do not absorb green light
in individuals with normal blood sugar levels, glucose is reabsorbed into the bloodstream in the kidney by members of the GLUT transporter family, through which glucose can move passively. as a result, no glucose is excreted in urine in normal individuals. however, in people with untreated diabetes mellitus, blood sugar levels are extremely high and glucose is often present in the urine. what explains this occurrence?
the GLUT transporters become saturated, allowing untransported glucose to be excreted in urine.
in the calvin cycle, the 5 carbon sugar called _____?
of the following, which is the best example of a single kind of ligand that activates very diverse responses in different cell types and in the same cells in distinct tissues?
a white eyed drosophila male is crossed with a red eyed homozygous female. what is the percentage of the female progeny that carry a white allele?
a cell biologist produces a karyotype of goat somatic cells arrested in mitosis. she counts 60 total chromosome sets (120 total DNA molecules, when counting each individual sister chromatid), which is completely normal for a normal goat cell. based on this information, what is the haploid number of chromosomes for goats?
the type of protein that DNA is wrapped around is called?
the make up of alleles in cells or individuals is referred to as the
a creeper chicken is bred to a creeper chicken. how many of the progeny will have the creeper phenotype?
what process produces new cells that are genetically identical to the original cell?
which of the following signaling components are most likely to be mutated in cancer?
receptor tyrosine kinase
a true breeding Axial flowered & tall & yellow seeds plant (all of these traits are dominant) is crossed with a true breeding terminal flowered & short & green seeds plant (all of these are recessive). all of the F1 offspring have axial flowers, are tall, and have yellow seeds. These F1 plants are self crossed, and the F2 progeny are examined. how many plants would be expected to be tall and yellow?
9 out of 16
ABO blood group determination is an example of
a heterozygous plant has a __________ phenotype, while the genotype of the same seed is _________
crossing over between homologous chromosomes takes place during what phase of meiosis?
choose the best words to complete the sentence: spindle fibers are the microtubules that originate from the _______. they attach to the ________ proteins on the sister _________ at the _________.
centrioles; kinetochore; chromatids; centromere
a creeper chicken is bred to a normal chicken. how many of the progeny will have the creeper phenotype?
which of the following types of signaling is where a signaling molecule is released from a gland and binds a receptor on a cell in a distant part of the body?
what event occurs first during meiosis?
synapsis of homologous chromosomes
which of the following is the proper order of the phases of mitosis of mitosis?
prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase.
what is the mechanism by which binding of testosterone to the testosterone receptor leads to upregulated gene transcription.
binding of testosterone to the testosterone receptor leads to a conformational change that allows the receptor to enter the nucleus where it can bind to DNA and promote gene transcription
The two copies of each type of chromosome found in normal somatic (body) cells in an organism, throughout the cell cycle, are called:
trisomy 21 is known as?
how many chromosomes does a (haploid) human germ cell have?
the most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene into cells that contain a defective version of the gene. in order to use gene therapy to prevent a man from passing a defective gene for blood coagulation on to the future generations, you would have to insert normal copies of the gene into
germ-line cells in the ovary
which of the following is where a signaling molecule is released from cell and then binds a receptor on the same cell?
the mother does not have a particular genetic disorder, but the father is heterozygous for the same dominant disorder. what is the chance of the parents passing on the trait to their children?
in a cross between a true breeding pea plant with round (R) seeds and a true breeding plant with wrinkled (r) seeds, all of the offspring have round seeds. what is the term for the different forms of the gene that confers either the round or wrinkled trait?
if a heterozygous red eyed female is mated with a white eyed male, what percentage of the total offspring are expected to be white eyed females?
a true breeding tall and inflated pea plant (both of these are dominant) is crossed with a true breeding short and constricted pea plant (both of these are recessive). the F1 generation is self crossed and the ratio of progeny is as follows: 48 tall and inflated to every 16 short and constricted- no tall and constricted, no short and inflated/ what can we conclude about these genes?
the genes for height and pod shape are close together on the same chromosome
which proteins hold two sister chromatids together during mitosis?
how many tetrads (bivalents) are in a swamp buffalo cell (normal diploid state = 48 chromosomes) during metaphase I of meiosis?
which of the following could not be used to refer to the same whole general structure during prophase I of meiosis
human height, which is continuous in its variation (i.e., not just tell or short, but a range of heights) is an example of what kind of genetic trait?
a father with blood type B has a child with a mother with blood type A. the parents are both homozygous. how many different blood types are possible for each of their children?
the independent assortment of allele pairs is due to
the independent segregation of homologous chromosome pairs during anaphase I
a father with blood type B has a child with a mother with blood type A. both of these parents each had a parent that was blood type O. how many different blood types are possible for each of their children?
fifty percent of cancerous cells have nonfunctioning p53 proteins. how does p53 help prevent cells from becoming cancerous?
it interacts with checkpoint proteins; it checks DNA for damage
a true breeding axial flowered & tall & yellow seeds (all of these are dominant) is crossed with a true breeding terminal flowered & short & green seeds plant (all of these are recessive). all of the F1 offspring have axial flowers, are tall, and have yellow seeds. these F1 plants are self-crossed, and the F2 progeny are examined. how many plants would be expected to be terminal and short?
1 out of 16
this term can be used to describe a diploid organism that has two identical alleles for a given trait.
what is the name of an enzyme that puts a phosphate group on another protein or lipid?
Evidence of crossing over can often be seen under the light microscope as a structure called a _______.
what is true about the difference about bacterial chromosomes compared to human chromosomes
bacteria have circular chromosomes, humans have linear chromosomes
a true breeding axial flowered & tall & yellow seeds plant (all of these are dominant) is crossed with a true breeding terminal flowered & short & green seeds plant (all of these are recessive). all of the F1 offspring have axial flowers, are tall, and have yellow seeds. these F1 plants are self-crossed, and the F2 progeny are examined. how many plants would be expected to be yellow?
12 out of 16
if a cell skipped metaphase and went directly from prometaphase to anaphase, what is the most likely consequence of this?
in a cross between a true breeding pea plant with round (R) seeds and a true breeding pea plant with wrinkled (r) seeds, all of the offspring have round seeds. what is the term for the round trait?
gap junctions are often involved in which of the following types of signaling
juxtacrine signaling (direct contant)
which of the following statements is false regarding sex linkage traits?
males inherit x-linked sex linkage traits from their fathers
in a cross between a true breeding pea plant with round (R) seeds and a true breeding pea plant with wrinkled (r) seeds, all of the offspring have round seeds. what is the term for the wrinkled trait?
when two viable genes are needed for a process, one gene can mask the affect of another gene, such that the genetic ratio is modified from mendelian inheritance. this phenomenon is called---
the father of genetics is considered to be an austrian monk named-
what is the correct difference between pea flower color and Japanese 4 O'clock plants:
in peas, one allele is fully dominant over the other; in 4 O'clock one allele is incompletely dominant over the other.
compared to asexual reproduction, the main advantage of sexual reproduction is that is
increases the genetic diversity of the offspring
what kind of molecule is cyclic AMP?
a second messenger
Olivia, who has blood type B, had an immune reaction when transfused with blood type A red cells. Her son, blood type AB, had no such reaction when transfused with blood type A red cells. Why?
both alleles are active in her son
the progress of the eukaryotic cell cycle is regulated primarily by what proteins?
when do homologous chromosomes separate from each other during meiosis?
when do sister chromatids separate from each other during meiosis?
a white eyed drosophila male is crossed with a red eyed homozygous female? what is the percentage of the male progeny that carry a white allele?
what is the sequence of events in a typical eukaryotic cell cycle?
G1 to S to G2 to mitosis to cytokinesis
amniocentesis is a
medical procedure permitting prenatal diagnosis of many genetic disorders
dna replication occurs during:
none of these
which of the following phases of the cell cycle are included in interphase?
all of these
a germ line cell with 36 total chromosomes produces ____ gametes that will have ______ chromosomes each.
a true breeding axial flowered & tall & yellow seeds plant (all of these are dominant) is crossed with a true breeding terminal flowered & short & green seeds plant (all of these are recessive). all of the F1 offspring have axial flowers, are tall, and have yellow seeds. these F1 plants are self-crossed, and the F2 progeny are examined. how many plants would be expected to be axial , tall , and yellow?
27 out of 64
calico cat coloration is the result of:
all of the previous influence calico cat coloration
the progress of the eukaryotic cell cycle is regulated primarily by what protein modification?
a true breeding axial flowered & tall & yellow seeds plant (all of these are dominant) is crossed with a true breeding terminal flowered & short & green seeds plant (all of these are recessive). all of the F1 offspring have axial flowers, are tall, and have yellow seeds. these F1 plants are self-crossed, and the F2 progeny are examined. how many plants would be expected to be axial , short , and yellow?
9 out of 64
the phenotypic ratio for the F1 generation that results from a testcross between a homozygous recessive individual and a heterozygous individual is
which of the following events occurs in mitotic metaphase?
chromosome alignment at the spindle equator
that stage of the cell cycle during which the cytoplasm divides to form two cells is called
if a cell contained an inactivating mutation in the gene encodes FtsZ, which of the following processes would be affected?
splitting (septation) in bacteria
in gel electrophoresis, what causes the DNA fragments to move across the gel at different speeds?
the size of the fragments
the enzyme that relieves the torque from rapid untwisting of DNA during DNA replication is:
topoisomerase (DNA gyrase)
how can a single RNA transcript lead to the translation of different proteins?
the same RNA transcript may be spliced in several different ways
frederick griffith mixed a heat-killed virulent strain of bacteria and a living strain of benign bacteria together that ended up producing virulent bacteria. what does this demonstrate?
DNA from the environment can be taken up by living bacteria
what % of the DNA in a cell encodes for functional proteins?
what is the best explanation as to why we have 5 times more proteins than genes?
exons are alternatively spliced together creating many more mRNAs than genes
what would happen to chromosomes in the absence of telomerase activity?
chromosomes would shorten during each division
vestigial structures are----
Non-functional structures left over from an organism's evolutionary past
complementary DNA (cDNA) is made in vitro using the enzyme reverse transcriptase and ________ as the usual template
which is not true about the genetic code?
a given amino acid is coded in mRNA by a triplet called an anticodon
the meselson-stahl experiment, were bacterial cells were grown in a heavy isotope of nitrogen, then switched to normal nitrogen for two replication cycles demonstrated that DNA replication is:
the sequencing method that cuts the DNA of an entire chromosome into small fragments and then close and sequences these fragments, which are then assembled by sequence overlap in a physical map is...
the specific site of negative genetic regulation where binding b a repressor blocks transcription is the
what would be the immediate consequence of a non-functional primase enzyme in DNA replication?
the DNA polymerase III enzyme would have nothing to extend
As pollution control measures were implemented in England, the levels of soot on forest trees began to decline during the latter half of the 20th century. What effect did this have on the distribution of moth coloration?
dark winged forms became less and less common
a cluster of functionally related genes that are regulated together and encoded into a single mRNA molecule is referred to as a/an and can be found in cells.
operon ; prokaryotic
the p300 (CREB - binding protein) proteins are histone acetyltransferases that help regulate the transcription of many genes. based on this information, you can conclude that these proteins
which of the following would produce the smallest evolutionary change in a given period of time in a population of birds?
unique amplification of short DNA sequences that serve as identifying markers of an individual
people homozygous for the sickle cell anemia allele develop a life-threatening disease, while those homozygous for the normal allele are at the highest risk of dying from malaria. carriers have some resistance to malaria but do not develop sickle cell anemia. this is an example of ?
what occurs in a prokaryotic cell as a consequence of high glucose with regards to the lac operon?
cyclic AMP levels are low so the CAP regulator protein will not bind to the CAP binding site so the genes are not transcribed
the sequencing method that cuts DNA segments into larger fragments, clones these fragments, then fragments these into smaller pieces for further cloning and sequencing which are then assembled together in a physical map is....
during translation, the start codon encodes what amino acid?
what is the main mechanism by which enhancer sequences lead to more transcription:
activator proteins (specific transcription factors) bind to the enhancer sequence and recruit the general transcription factors, which then recruit RNA polymerase.
when a substitution mutation changes the codon CCC to the codon CCA, both code for proline. what type of mutation is this?
is a population is drastically reduced in size and rebounds what has occurred from a genetic perspective?
there are approximately __________ genes in the human genome?
what potential benefits can we gain from genetically modified foods?
all of the above
which if the following is not a type of RNA?
which of the following is true about prokaryotic mRNAs?
more than one protein is encoded on same mRNA
which of the following must be true in order for natural selection to occur?
all of the above must be true for selection to occur
hershey and chase's experiment in bacteriophages showed that what component was transferred from the phage to the bacteria?
the enzyme that synthesizes the new DNA strand during replication is
DNA polymerase III
natural selection, as a mechanism of evolution that acts on variants within populations and ultimately leads to the evolution of different species, was proposed by:
why does DNA replication proceed in opposite directions on the leading and lagging strands?
DNA polymerase III can only add to the 3' end of a strand
if a DNA molecule contains 10% guanosine, how much cytosine will it contain?
the enzyme that removes the RNA primers from newly synthesized DNA and replaces them with DNA nucleotides during DNA replication is:
DNA polymerase I
During DNA replication, what enzyme is responsible for untwisting the DNA helix?
DNA from a eukaryotic organism is digested with a restriction endonuclease and the fragments are inserted into bacterial plasmids in bacteria. these bacteria collectively contain all the genes of the organism. this is termed a --
beadle and tatum's experiments in Neurospora crassa used X-rays to create four different fungus strains that needed extra metabolites in the arginine pathway. what is the best conclusion from their experiments with regard to the fact that they found strains that were compensated by addition of either ornithine, citruline, arginosuccinate, or arginine
there were four different genes that were involved in the creation of arginine, each acting at a different step, each of which was mutated in a different strain of fungus.
ribosomes are complex aggregates of
RNA and proteins
which of the following mutations would affect the protein coding sequence the most?
an insertion of 2 nucleotides in the coding sequence
during this process, RNA polymerase synthesizes a molecule of RNA using DNA as a template.
the enzyme that seals the phosphate backbone Okazaki fragments in DNA replication is:
which of the following does not play a role in the genetic regulation of tryptophan synthesis in the bacterium E. coli
which statement is not correct with regard to the roles of E, P, and A sites during translation?
the A site is where the growing peptide sequence is covalently attached to the ribosome
which of the following is true about an enhancer?
it is a DNA sequence that is far from the gene but can promote its expression
what is the function of the 5' cap and the 3' poly a tail in eukaryotic mRNA?
protects mRNA from degradation
a biotechnology lab engineers bacteria to make human insulin. how would this be accomplished?
human insulin genes are inserted into bacteria
what is used to cut genes in both recombinant DNA research and DNA fingerprinting?
a process that often silences mRNA expression is:
the several hundred species of picture-winged fruit flies of the Hawaiian islands are genetically very similar, yet they all differ markedly from their ancestral population in Asia. this is probably accounted for by:
the founder effect
some of the most dramatic evidence for evolution has come from human agriculture. one of the might highly artificially selected crop plants is
how does the presence of lactose cause the lac operon to be transcribed in prokaryotes?
lactose binds to the allosteric site on the repressor, inhibiting DNA binding by the repressor
the inclusive term that describes all of the DNA in the nucleus of a cell is its..
if a DNA molecule contains 20% thymine, how much guanine will it contain?
the genetic preservation of the features that increase the likelihood of survival and reproduction of some individuals within a population is called the process of:
the main difference between a primary RNA transcript and a mature mRNA transcript in eukaryotes is:
introns have been spliced out
the organism with the highest fitness is
an animal that lives 10 years and produces 10 offspring per year
in england during the 1850s, higher levels of industrial pollution darkened the trunks of trees found around industrial areas. what effect did this have on the local moth populations?
b & c are correct
small RNAs can regulate gene expression. one type, called micro RNA (mRNA), acts by binding to argonaute proteins and bind directly to
mRNA to prevent translation
during translation, amino acids are carried to the ribosome by:
increasing the frequency of initiation occurs through positive control. the regulatory DNA sequences responsible are ----
Similar habitats often place similar selection pressures on different species. This often leads to unrelated species having features in common. What is this an example of?
the codon CAT matches with the anticodon (written 3' to 5' so you can match it up):
identical twins differ primarily in their:
the most common way gene expression is regulated in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes is through the
control of gene transcription
from an evolutionary perspective, what is fitness?
the ability to leave behind its genetic makeup in progeny
during translation, the nucleotides that make up the mRNA are read in groups of three. these groups are called:
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