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Expansion and Prelude to War Test
Terms in this set (31)
What is manifest destiny?
A "mandate from God" to spread American ideals.
-They had a reason to take whatever land they wanted, regardless of who owned it
What did the Manifest Destiny result in?
Huge land gains and expansion of the US, mistreatment of Native populations and Mexicans.
What happened after Texas split from Mexico?
Texas tried to become a US state, but the governor was worried another slave state would throw off political balance, so he didn't allow it.
Why was Great Britain so interested in Texas
An independent Texas would...
-Halt American expansion
-Weaken the Monroe Doctrine -Open the door for new colonies
-Provide another source of cotton for the textile industry
Why did the annexation of Texas occur?
President Tyler sees Britain's interest as a reason to claim Texas. Treaty of Annexation made Texas a state, but it broke political ties with Mexico
Who controlled Oregon prior to the Oregon Treaty?
The British and the US.
Why was there support for the annexation of Oregon?
The majority of the people there were American.
What was decided in the Oregon Treaty?
Oregon would be split at the current US-Canada border.
What were Polk's feelings towards California?
Polk wanted California in order to expand from "sea to shining sea" and open up trade with Asia.
Why was Mexico not happy about California?
They had territorial claims to California.
What were the diplomatic efforts to resolve the issue between California and Mexico?
A diplomat sent to Mexico to buy CA for $25 million. Mexico refused to sell, so Polk asked for war.
Who won the Mexican-American War?
America won because they were the vastly superior force with a stronger army.
What was the agreement that ended the Mexican-American war?
The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo.
-Mexico gave away 55% of land, got $15 million in return, along with debts paid by the US
What was the most pressing question in the 1850s regarding new lands?
Where they slave states or free states?
What were the provisions of the Compromise of 1850?
-California enters union as a free state
-Popular sovereignty would determine the fate of slavery in the other western territories
-Slave trade, but not slavery itself, was abolished in Washington DC
-Congress passed fugitive slave law: this required north to return runaway slaves to southern plantation owners
Why were the provisions of the Compromise of 1850 significant?
Caused bitterness, violence, and further divide of the country.
What is popular sovereignty?
A belief that the ultimate power resides in the people, the authority is from the people
How did Compromise of 1850 oppose provisions made in the Missouri Compromise?
-The Missouri Compromise outlawed slavery above the 36-30 latitude line in the remaining Louisiana Territory.
-The Compromise of 1850 got rid of this whole notion, allowing slavery to expand according to popular sovereignty.
What did the North think about the Fugitive Slave law?
Most northerners were opposed to this law, and armed mobs would attack slave catchers to prevent return.
-Also, Harriet Beecher Stowe's "Uncle Tom's Cabin" turned many northerners against slavery.
What was the Underground Railroad?
A secret network of safe routes and houses for runaway slaves
What were the provisions of the Kansas-Nebraska act?
-Nebraska territory was split into Kansas and Nebraska
-Popular sovereignty would be applied in new areas
What happened to Kansas as a result of the Kansas-Nebraska Act?
The politicians from the Democratic party broke off and formed the Republican party, and by 1856, Kansas had become a battleground between those in favor of slavery and abolitionists
What was the Dred Scott case about?
Missouri slave was taken into North Stanford and sue for his freedom
What was the ruling of the Dred Scott Case?
Reaffirmed a slave's status as property, not as a citizen.
Why was the Dred Scott case significant?
Fueled the abolitionist movement and hailed as a victory for the south.
What was the intent of John Brown's revolt?
John Brown lead an attack on federal arsenal at Harper's ferry, Virginia, hoping to start a slave rebellion.
How did John Brown's revolt further polarize north and south?
-South: initially responded hysterically, fearing slave revolts. Although revolts didn't occur, the south was angry and fearful
-North: Brown's eloquence at his trial swayed public opinion. Northerners are "gripped with indignation."
What is the Slave Power Theory?
How a minority of smaller, slave states, maintained political power needed to maintain slavery.
What was the Southern Control of Leadership?
-White House: for 49 of 72 years, the president is a slave holder.
-Congress: 2/3 of the Speakers of the House are southern.
-Supreme Court: Every chief justice is a southerner.
How did the South gain control of the government?
-3/5 Compromise: Slaves counted as part of the population, so the south gets 20 more seats in the House than they should have gotten.
-2 senators per state: Southern senators represent fewer people.
-President chosen by Electoral college: (Senators +House seats = EC votes) so same disproportionality
-Supreme court justices are appointed by President: if the president is southern, court justice is also likely to be southern.
What were the party politics?
-Democrats are in control
-Friendly to southern/rural/agricultural interests
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