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34 terms

Protein Synthesis

STUDY
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What is transcription?
When DNA makes RNA
What is the genetic code in mRNA called?
Codon
Why is the DNA code said to be degenerate?
more than one code for some amino acids
What is the sugar in DNA?
Deoxyribose
What base is complimentary with Guanine?
Cytosine
What do we call the process of RNA making proteins?
Translation
What is a gene?
a protion of a DNA molecule that codes for one polypeptide or protein.
How are amino acids connected together?
By peptide bonds
What is the function of tRNA?
To carry amino acids to the ribosome
What is the function of the ribosome?
to read the mRNA codon
How many amino acids are there?
20
What base is found in RNA but not in DNA?
Uracil
Where in the cell does translation occur?
In the cytoplasm
Where in the cell does transcription occur?
In the nucleus
Where in the cell does replication occur?
In the nucleus
What is replication?
When DNA reproduces itself
Non-coding sequences of bases found in DNA are called ____
Introns
Which is larger: DNA or mRNA?
DNA
Which is larger: mRNA or tRNA?
mRNA
What is the genetic code?
3 bases code for one amino acid
How many DNA molecules are in one chromosome?
1
Which is larger: a chromosome or a gene?
a chromosome
What is the function of the ribosome?
to read the mRNA codons
What is a point mutation?
substitution of one base for another in DNA
The effect of a base addition or deletion in DNA is ____
a frameshift of the codons
What is an example of chromosomal mutation?
Missing or additional chromosomes
Name one disorder caused by extra chromosomes.
Down Syndrome
Name one disorder caused by deletion of bases.
Cystic fibrosis is caused by deleting AAA in DNA
Name one disorder caused by a point mutation.
Sickle Cell anemia
What is the cause of sickle cell anemia?
Substitution of valine for glutamic acid
Name one chromosomal disorder caused by missing info.
Turner Syndrome
What is the name of the disorder caused by having an extra X?
Kleinfelter's Syndrome
What are exons?
Base sequences in DNA that code for something
What are introns?
Base sequences in DNA that not code for anything