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World Religion - 1

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first nation - Origins
According to many Anthropologists, they entered the Americas via Beringia. Nevertheless, they have different stories as to how they arrived here. One such story is the Iroquois creation myth of Sky Woman. Regardless of their exact origins, today there is a tremendous diversity amongst them. First instance, in Southern Alberta there are the Siksika, Piikani and Kainai (all part of the Blackfoot Confederacy).
Blackfoot Confederacy
Siksika, Piikani and Kainai
first nation - beliefs
belief systems are a mixture of Polytheism, Henotheism and Monotheism. Other beliefs include two souls, an afterlife and the trickster (as found in the Haida myth about the Raven and the Sun).
first nation - sacredness
The Vision Quest is a ritual that is closely tied to a sense of sacredness. Sometimes one will be granted a totem after undergoing this ritual. Vision Quest sites close to Lethbridge include Aisinai'pi, Mastoeeas and Ninastako. Medicine Wheels are objects that are considered to be sacred.
first nation - rituals
Sun Dance is practiced by many, which is an excellent example of asceticism. Another common ritual is the Pow Wow.
first nation - ethics
generally revolve around virtues, a shared humanity and respect of nature. eg:

Try to do something for your people - something difficult. Have pity on your people and love them. If a man is poor, help him. Give him and his family food, give them whatever they ask for. If there is discord among your people, intercede.

No tribe has the right to sell, even to each other, much less to strangers...Sell a country! Why not sell the air, the great sea, as well as the earth? Didn't the Great Spirit make them all for the use of his children?
first nations - community
In general, most religious rituals are done communally. Exceptions to this rule are healing ceremonies performed by shamans (e.g. Navajo sand art).
Jews
There are approximately 13 million ______ in the world, the majority of whom live in the United States and Israel. The 2001 census recorded 330,000 _____ in Canada, about 1% of the population. Major ____ centers in Canada include Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver and Winnipeg.
1800 BC.E.
Traditional date of Abraham
1200 BC.E.
Traditional date of the Exodus
1000 B.C.E.
Jerusalem named capital of United Monarchy under King David
950 B.C.E.
Completion of First Temple by Solomon
722 B.C.E.
Fall of northern kingdom (Israel) to Assyria
586 B.C.E.
Fall of southern kingdom (Judah) to Babylon and destruction of the First Temple
515 B.C.E.
Dedication of Second Temple
400 B.C.E.
TANAK (H) finalized
331 B.C.E.
Alexander the Great conquers Palestine
167-164 B.C.E.
Maccabean Revolt
63 B.C.E.
Roman conquest of Jerusalem
70 C.E.
Destruction of the Second Temple by Romans
200 C.E.
Completion of the Mishnah
600 C.E.
Completion of the Babylonian Talmud
1135-1204 C.E.
Life of philosopher Moses Maimonides
1492 C.E.
Expulsion of Jews from Spain
1700-1760 C.E.
Life of Baal Shem Tov
1897 C.E.
Founding of the Zionist movement
1937-1945 C.E.
The Shoah
1948 C.E.
Creation of the modern state of Israel
Pharasees, Saducees, Essenes, Zealots
Jewish groups found under Roman rule (63 B.C.E. - 70 C.E.), though most of their roots can be traced back to the period of Maccabeean rule
rabbis
After the destruction of the second temple (70 C.E.) the Pharisees, Saducees, Essenes and Zealots were wiped out. The Rabbinic tradition that emerged was most influenced by the Pharisees.
ashkenazi, sephardic
These two Jewish groups developed from the Rabbinic tradition in the Middle Ages. Their main differences involve language and countries of origin. Kabbalism was also popular at this time, though it is not tied to the Rabbis.
reform, conservative, orthodox
These are the modern Jewish groups that emerged from the Ashkenazi tradition.
judasim origin
According to Anthropologists, _____ emerged from a semi-nomadic tribe called the Hebrews, who lived in the Fertile Crescent. Nevertheless, according to the Hebrew Bible, ____ (and humanity at large) emerged with Adam and Eve. This story is celebrated in the holiday Rosh Hashanah, which uses a shofar to awaken Jews from their "moral slumber." Ten days afterwards, Yom Kippur is celebrated.
Noah
flood has many similarities with the Mesopotamian story of Utnapishtim, which is found in the Epic of Gilgamesh. These similarities have led some scholars to speculate that Judaism borrowed some narrative traditions from the Mesopotamians.
The Monarchic Period
The Jewish nation was ruled by a series of three kings. The first of which was Saul. The second king was David, who, according to tradition, composed the Psalms and formed an everlasting covenant with YHVH. The third king was Solomon, to whom the Wisdom Literature is attributed and who undertook the construction of the First Temple in Jerusalem. After Solomon, the kingdom split into the northern region of Israel and the southern region of Judah.
Foreign Rule
Eventually Israel was captured by the Assyrians and Judah was captured by the Babylonians (under Nebuchadnezzar). Babylonian rule led many major developments, including the Diaspora, the Messiah, and the completion of the TANAK(H) (which consists of the Torah, Neviim and Ketuvim).
Persian rule replaced Babylonian rule and led to the construction of the Second Temple under King Cyrus. Cyrus was a Zoroastrian, which is a Persian religion that strongly influenced Jewish belief.
Persian rule was replaced by Greek rule, which was known for its practice of Hellenism. The Macabeean Revolt occurred under Greek rule and is celebrated in the Jewish holiday of Hanukah.
Greek rule was replaced by Roman rule, under which a number of Jewish groups were found, including Sadducees, Pharisees, Zealots and Essenes (who, according to some scholars, wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls).
Destruction of the Second Temple
happened in 70 C.E. led to a number of significant changes in Judaism. For one, the Wailing Wall became a place of pilgrimage. Secondly, the synagogue became the primary place of worship (e.g. the Great Synagogue in Budapest, Hungary). Thirdly, the Rabbinic tradition, which placed great emphasis on the Torah, emerged. Under the Rabbis, the Talmud (which contains the Mishnah and Gemera) was written. Fourthly, purity laws (e.g. kosher) became very important.
Middle Ages
Due to a second Diaspora, Jews spread across Europe. These different Jewish groups began to develop their own customs and languages. Usually, such groups are broken up into Ashkenazi (who speak Yiddish) and Sephardic (who speak Ladino). Also around this time Jewish mysticism became popular. Kabbalah is a form of Jewish mysticism that uses the Zohar as its primary text. Finally, Jewish philosophy was also beginning to grow in popularity (e.g. the philosophy of Maimonides).
Enlightenment
Under the enlightenment a number of different Jewish groups emerged, including Reform, Conservative and Orthodox. A branch of Orthodox Judaism is Hasidism, which tends to gather around various charismatic leaders (e.g. Baal Shem Tov).
Shoah
emerged in Germany with the Nazi party. It was based on extreme anti-Semitism, whose roots extend quite far back in the country's history. It consisted of stripping Jews of certain rights, deporting them to ghettos and, then, later, to forced labor camps. Finally, as part of the "Final Solution", Jews were sent to death camps (e.g. Auschwitz in Poland). Not surprisingly, the Shoah greatly affected Jewish belief, which is reflected in the works of Elie Wiesel and Anne Frank.
As a result of the Shoah Jews were soon given a homeland in Israel, though many Jews advocated for a homeland many years before. This movement, called Zionism, began in the early 19th century by a man by the name of Theodore Herzl.
shaman
1st nations medicine person, thought to be able to converse with the sacred or the divine. Can leave this world. Can be given special information, which can be used to heal ppl. Can ward off bad spirits that can cause sickness. Use sand painting or sand art (ritual that lasts 2 - 9 days).
sand paintings
must be destruted after the ritual is preformed, if not evil can enter.
jewish origin
fertile-cresent, made living comparatively easy for them. Originated from a tribe of hewbrews
hebrew bible
= is the old testament
judasim
calls their bible the hebrew bible
adam and eve
the creation of the earth & man. Forms adam out of clay, breathed into adam to give him life. Adam is lonely, so God makes eve out of a rib from adam. God places them into the garden of eden. They can do anything they want in this garden except eat from this tree of central knowledge. A serpent pursways them to eat from the tree. Eating makes them realize the difference between good and evil, making them hide, God finds out and kicks them out of the paradise.
adam & eve
story is viewed are either: humans sin because they are evil, humans sin because they are ignorant. Jews view this story's meaning as both.
rosh hashanah
(during the new year) is the celebration of the story of adam & eve. God here tallies ppl's sins = a time for the jews to repent & ask for forgiveness.
shofar
is a horn used in the rosh hashanah. To awaken ppl from their moral slumber, and awaken them to face their sins
yom kippur
10 days after rosh hashanah. Is the holiest days on the jewish calendar. Collectively repent their sins & forgive each other. During they with stain from smoking, drinking, eating & sexual activities.
noah
(stories from the hebrew bible) is a descendant from adam & eve. At this time ppl aren't listening to God's commandments, so God decides to have a flood & start the world anew, God notices this man has been faithful. He instructs him to build a arc, and take 2 of every animals, and it floods for 40 days and 40 nights. Noah sends out a raven & then a dove to find out if there is dry land.
Mesopotamia's
have a flood story as well called "upnapishtim" - about an immortal man called upnapishtim. Tells a story about the Gods flooding the earth, & decided humanity was on the wrong course, floods for 7 days. sends out a dove, sends out a raven, to find dry land. Differences in time frame. They believe this story was borrowed by the Jews.
abraham
means "father of many" is a descendant of noah - had a son isaac - grandson Jacob & 12 great grandsons
canaan
abraham was in errb and God says if you follow me I will give you a promised land which was called ______ or modern day Israel. And was also promised (covenant) by God that they will have many descendants, problem is that they are very old = sleeps with hagar (his maid servant) and has ishmael. Sarah his wife miracuously becomes pregnant and gives birth to isaac and banishes hagar & ishmael.
covenant
is a promise (made between God and someone) are either conditional or unconditional
universal covenants
apply to everyone regardless of their region or race
specific covenants
specific, may be only for the chosen ppl.
unconditional covenants
no matter what ppl do God will still keep these promises
conditional covenants
rules that ppl have to follow in order for God to follow through with his promises.
rainbow
is a universal unconditional covenant that God gave to noah after the flood that he will no longer flood the earth
abraham
God promises ______ many children & the promise land if they all follow the 10 commandments, circumcision.
circumcision
is an external sign of obeying God - and limits their lust
Isaac
God tells Abraham to sacrifice ______, then an angel comes and tells Abraham to not sacrifice his son & that God was just testing his faith, & then ends up sacrificing a ram
jacob
is also called israel which means wrestling with God. Has 12 sons called the 12 tribes of israel.
moses
(hebrew story) egyptian rulers become fearful of the jews b cuz they are becoming too strong so they start enslaving them and killing the males. woman wants to save her baby son, so she puts him in a basket and sends him down the nile river. The pharoh's daughter finds him and names him moses which means "one who is taken from the water"
moses
knows he is jewish, sees an egyptian beating a jew and kills him which forces him to flee. while he is in the desert he comes across a burning bush, out of the bush a voice arises saying that he wants to set the ppl free, and that this is now his job. This voice is Yahweh (YHVH/ YHWH = jewish God - Jehovah - HOLY OTHER)
judaism
is monotheistic, some scholars believe in the past that they once where polytheistic or henotheistic.
moses
tells pharaoh to let the jews go, pharaoh says no and he says that God will make 10 plagues: loctus, frogs, fries, water turns to blood, and the killing of the 1st born. To show the Egyptians Yahweh's power. moses instructs them to kill a lamb and paint the blood over their doorway which will make the angel or death away, and instructs the jews to make the unleavened bread (bread without yeast)
passover
celebration of the freeing of the hebrews from the egyptians, celebrated with the seder meal. 2 green vegetables = new life. Meat/lamb = symbolic to the lamb that was sacrificed. Bitter herbs = symbolic of the bitterness of slavery. Mixture of nuts & fruit = slavery. hard boiled egg, which is not eaten during the seder meal = suspected that it symbolizes the resiliency of the jewish ppl, and the tougher they became. Unleavened bread. Some will take all the yeast out of their homes.
exodus
the Hebrews fleeing. The pharaoh wants to get his slaves back & sends his army after them. They meet at the red sea. Yahweh allows moses to part the red sea, and they cross, and when the egyptians try to cross the water floods back and they all drowned
40 years
after the exodus, the hebrews wander, to mount sinai, where moses receives the 10 commandments (decalogue).
decalogue
means "10 words" = 10 commandments
10 commandments
- no other God before me
- no false idols
- no murder/adultery
ark of the covenant
moses comes down from the mt sinai and places the 10 commandments into the ________. Is 2 gold angels forming an ark. ppl carry this around wherever they go and kept in a tabernacle. ppl must follow these commandments in order for God to follow through with his promises.
battle of jericho
Yahweh instructed jewish ppl to march around these imparable walls of jericho for 7 days while blowing horns. & they all came tumbling down. Then the jews went into jericho and killed every living thing within jericho. Theory: Jews were able to retake over the promised land because the canaanites were farmers and that was a difficult place to farm, and they asked the jews to help them. OR the majority of the ppl were very poor, and when the jews moved in and the poor ppl became jewish to get a sense of equality.
Abraham
Sarah, Hagar, Ishmael and Isaac highlights the Jewish themes of the Promised Land (Canaan) and Covenant (which, later on, has ties to the prophets). Abraham is considered a patriarch of Judaism, along with his son Isaac, grandson Jacob and 12 great-grandsons (who formed the 12 tribes of Israel).
According to tradition, the Jewish people were led from Egypt by Moses, who, in turn, was led by YHVH. This is the story of the Exodus and is celebrated in the holiday of Passover, which includes a Seder meal. According to Jewish tradition, after the Exodus YHVH gave the Decalogue to Moses on Mt. Sinai. The Decalogue was then kept in the Ark in the Covenant, which was housed in the Tabernacle.
Later on, the Jews were able to re-capture the Promised Land via a series of battles (e.g. Jericho) under the leadership of various military heroes (e.g. Joshua).
saul
the jews unite under a monachy or a kingship. this man was the 1st king. appointed king by military heros, who wanted a central figure to reign over the jews. their group was in constant conflict with the philistines, and they had a giant named Goliath. David is a young boy who says God ordered him in a dream to kill Goliath, and tells saul, saul gives him armor, and david says no all i need is a sling shot with 3 pebbles. And kills Goliath, and chops off his own head with Goliaths own sword.
david
is appointed by saul a higher up person in the heirachy. David becomes the 2nd king of the jewish ppl, and is the ideal ruler. God promises David that all future kings will come from Davids line (everlasting covenant). David wrote the psalms, which means stringed instrument. which were meant to b sung with harps.
solomon
3rd and final king of the monachy. Known for his wisdom. felt that one could become wise apart from God. wrote the wisdom literature (proverbs & ecclesiastes), tells life as it is. wasnt written until many years after him
first jewish temple
under solomon this was built. inner sanctum (the holy of holies), and not many ppl were allowed in here. usually only the priest was allowed in their once on the holiest day in the jewish calendar
israel
the northern kingdom, contains 10 of 12 tribes. Since has more tribes is much stronger.
judah
southern kingdom, only contains 2 out of the 12 tribes. where the term "judaism" comes from. Is more spiritual, contains: jerusalem, the 1st temple...
judah & israel
are both taken over
southern kingdom
was taken over by the babylonians. and they are taken back to babylon, but they are still able to practice their religion. This is where the ark of the covenant is destroyed. under babylonian rule a lot of growth happens in the jews
nebuchadnessar
was a strong king, marched into the southern king and over took them
northern kingdom
scratters, Assyrians comes in a destroy. 10 lost tribes of israel
diaspora
means dispersion. live in this state, away from home land.
messiah
means anointed one. jews develop this notion that their will arise a great leader that will rebuild the jewish temple and bring them out of diaspora
jewish messiah
is jesus, however jews do not view jesus as the messiah or the son of God. They view him in a favorable light, however are still waiting for their messiah. Jews for Jesus is opposite.
under babylonian rule
jewish ppl become to write down their oral stories
TANAK(H)
hebrew bible, or as Christians would call it: the old testiment. Is an acronim for:
- TORAH - 1st 5 books (Pentateuch)
-NEVIIM (prophetic books)
- KETUVIM (other writings)
prophets
are able to speak to God and speak on his behalf.
torah's
are very expensive because they are all hand written and are not allowed to be used in Jewish services if there is any errors in it.
persian's
babylonian rule was taken over by the _____ (eygpt, turkey, iran...) Their king (Cyrus) allows the jews to return to their promised land because he wants to restore the ancient religions. Finances the construction of their 2nd temple
2nd temple
is the same as the 1st minus the ark of the covenant.
Zoroastrianism
still exists today, under persian rule. are dualistic, believe that there is forces of evil (demons) & good (angels) which are always in constant battle. There will be a great battle at the end of the world, as well as a resurrection of the dead, and believe in a final judgment, and the good ppl will allowed into heaven and the bad ppl will go to hell.
persian rule
is believed by scholars to have brought on many Zoroastrianism beliefs to the jews. TANAKA was completed under this rule.
greek
persians are over taken by the ______
hellenism
under greek rule there was ________ which means "i speak greek," Jews were attracted to this culture & customs, to fit in with the greek. Dropped some of their jewish culture & customs. Greek ruler wanted to control the jews by taking over the jewish temple and makes it a temple for the greek God Zeus, and places new priests in the temple, and forbids the jews from practicing their own beliefs. The MACCABEANS are the jewish group that becomes very angry with this greek ruler
MACCABEANS revolt
take back their jewish temple. and come across a candelabrum is symbolic for the burning bush, and there is only oil left for 1 more day, miraculously the oil lasts for 8 days, giving them time to replenish its oil (celebrated by Hanukkah)
Hanukkah
celebrates the 8 days the candelabrum burned. occurred during xmas therefore the jews elevated this celebration making them not feel left out from the christian celebration.
maccabean rule
judasim develops into different groups, and the romans over take the greeks.
sadducees
belong to the priestly class and were coleaders of the SANHEDRIN (jewish court of law).
pharisees
belonged to the middle class and were coleaders of the SANHEDRIN
zealots
wanted to end roman rule at any cost
essenes
belonged to the priestly class. some scholars believe that they eventually settled in the area around the dead sea and subsequently wrote the DEAD SEA SCROLLS
zoroastrianism
final judgement - influenced judaism - good vs evil - God was called `wise Lord`
judaism rituals
- bris
- mohel
- bar or bat mitzvah
- shivah
judaism
adam & eve demonstrates:
-humans are both evil & ignorant
christians
adam & eve demonstrates:
-humans are both evil
land & decendants
God promised Abraham... in return for follwing him
Moses
God promised to set the ppl free from the Egyptians
Noah
God promised to never flood the earth
Jewish God`s
name is YHWH - Yahweh - Jehovah
Monarchic periods
3 kings: salomon, issacac.. **
monarchic period
or period of 3 kings
Jews
believe that the Messiah is yet to come
Christians
believe that Jesus is the Messiah
Hanukkah
Jewish holiday that celebrates the Macabeen Revolt
Yom Kippur
Jewish holiday that celebrates the new year
PASSOVER
Jewish holiday that celebrates the passing over of the angel of death
Zealots
group used violence & terrorism to try to end Roman rule
Essenes
dead sea scrolls - apocalyptic group
pharisees & sadducees
are both involved in the jewish law
pharisees
are the more popular of the 2 jewish groups
destruction of the 2nd temple
in 70 C.E. led to a number of significant changes in Judaism. For one, the Wailing Wall became a place of pilgrimage. Secondly, the synagogue became the primary place of worship (e.g. the Great Synagogue in Budapest, Hungary). Thirdly, the Rabbinic tradition, which placed great emphasis on the Torah, emerged. Under the Rabbis, the Talmud (which contains the Mishnah and Gemera) was written. Fourthly, purity laws (e.g. kosher) became very important.
after the destruction of the 2nd temple
judaism began to change because the event was so aweful
wailing wall
wall built around the 2nd jewish temple - one part of wall was left standing, the western or __________. Which after became an area of pilgrimage.
synagogue
with the destruction of the 2nd temple, many Jews go to worship at ________, which means `to gather.`They existed prior to the destruction to the 2nd temple. Was meant to be a place to go if the temple was too far to travel. Some where in ppls homes. The significance & importance of the ________ increases greatly after the destruction of the 2nd temple, and are build for the sole purpose of worship & are built outside of homes, & is symbolic now. All are facing east, to face Jerusalem. The TORA scroll is there, and is found in a cupboard that is sometimes called an arc or the arc of the covenant. Candelabra is symbolic for the burning bush & God.
Great synagogue
found in Budapest, Hungary. Largest synagogue in the world. Hebrew writing, Star or shield of David (occurred after the destruction of the 2nd temple)
Kippah or Yarnical**
male Jews wear this hat as a sign of respect
rabbinic, rabbis
(occurred after the destruction of the 2nd temple) groups begin to form. Means `leader.`Teach the Torah. Because of the Zealots uprising the destruction occurred, therefore this group was wiped out. Sadducee disappeared. Essences are very apocalyptic. One group that remains is the Pharisees, and here the ______ emerge.
TORAH
can refer to the TANKA (the 1st 5 books), all Jewish law, all Jewish books. Depends on the context.
rabbis
at a synagogue service the person leading the service does not have to be a ______. _______ is NOT hereditary, all you have to do to become a _______ is attend to school. There is female ______, some Jewish groups do not recognize them however.
prior to the destruction of the 2nd temple
Judaism is fractured & in many groups
after the the destruction of the 2nd temple
Judaism is more unified.
after the the destruction of the 2nd temple
more significance was given to the TORAH
TANAK
hebrew bible
TALMUD
(after the destruction of the 2nd temple) MISHNAH is a oral torah that is collected by the rabbis. About food laws, divorce laws, farming techniques... Rabbis wrote commentaries about these laws called GEMARA. Together these form the ______
MISHNAH
(found in the TALMUD - after the destruction of the 2nd temple) is a oral torah that is collected by the rabbis. About food laws, divorce laws, farming techniques...
GEMARA
(found in the TALMUD - after the destruction of the 2nd temple) Rabbis wrote commentaries about these laws called _______. Trying to relate the TALMUD to modern times.
sabbath
is the jewish day of rest
kosher
(after the destruction of the 2nd temple) Is a food law, and if a food is pure within Judaism it is called _______. Purity laws are transposed onto everyday life. Jews are not allowed to eat: Pork, Shell fish, Birds of Prey. Also how the food is served & prepared influences if it is allowed to be eaten by the Jews. Meat & milk must be kept separate. Separate plates, wait between eating milk & meat. Blood must be completely drained for the animal by slices in the animal in the jugular.
kosher
in order for Jews to be able to eat meat the animal must have both cloven hooves & chew their cud, this makes the meat _____. Sea food must have scales in order for it to be ______. Applies to bodily fluids, some are considered impure.
purity laws
are important to the Jews because they help avoid sickness, awaiting the Messiah, MAIN: to help create group coherence within Judaism.
Ashkenazim
(Jewish group that formed due to the diaspora after the destruction of the 2nd temple) Germany, Polland (eastern europe) spoke Yiddish. Hit hard by the Holocaust, and ended up immigrating to North America or the USA.
Yiddish
(formed due to the diaspora after the destruction of the 2nd temple)mixture of Hebrew & German, language spoken by the Ashkenazim Jews.
Sephardim
(Jewish group that formed due to the diaspora after the destruction of the 2nd temple) mainly in spain, portugal & northern Africa. Most differences between the other major Jewish group is culture, quite similar. Do not get along. Experienced tremendous persecution. Christians gave them 3 options, flee, be killed or convert to Christian.
diaspora
or dispersion occurred again after the destruction of the 2nd temple. Jewish ppl begin to scatter throughout Europe = various pockets of Jews form = 2 major groups: Ashkenazim & Sephardim.
kabbalah
(middle ages) Jewish mysticism or belief that they can have a direct experience with God. Became popular in the midst of persecution. Beliefs found in a ZOHAR
zohar
(middle ages) means `book of splendor.`KABBALAH beliefs are found in this book. Has 10 attributes of God in it, it is believed that the mystic can study these attributes, and must leave their intelligence & intellectual reasoning behind to be able to get a glimpse of God.
mysticism
(middle ages) the belief that one can have a direct experience with God, found in most religions. Found on the fringes of religious traditions.
Maimonides
(middle ages) Jewish philosophies begin to pick up at this time. This man was a philosopher, was a doctor, combined Greek philosophy with Judaism to bring together knowledge of the head (reason) with knowledge of the heart (faith). Wrote down 13 principles or summary of the major beliefs of Judaism.
Middle Ages
Due to a second Diaspora, Jews spread across Europe. These different Jewish groups began to develop their own customs and languages. Usually, such groups are broken up into Ashkenazi (who speak Yiddish) and Sephardic (who speak Ladino). Also around this time Jewish mysticism became popular. Kabbalah is a form of Jewish mysticism that uses the Zohar as its primary text. Finally, Jewish philosophy was also beginning to grow in popularity (e.g. the philosophy of Maimonides).
Enlightenment
Under the enlightenment a number of different Jewish groups emerged, including Reform, Conservative and Orthodox. A branch of Orthodox Judaism is Hasidism, which tends to gather around various charismatic leaders (e.g. Baal Shem Tov).
Age of Enlightenment
reform, conservative, orthodox. Deals with equality, in order for Jews to not be persecuted as much they felt they had to assimilate into a larger culture. This is when these 3 different Jewish groups emerged.
Reform Jews
(Age of Enlightenment) Felt they had to assimilate into a larger group, and kept beliefs they liked. Got rid of circumcision & kosher laws. Synagogue services were changed to Sundays to fit in with Christians. Synagogues became to look like Roman Catholic Cathedrals. Felt that the Hebrew Bible is not the word of God. Felt that ideas evolve over time & change over time. Seen today. Some are adopting kosher & circumcision laws.
Orthodox Jews
(Age of Enlightenment) Keep all things & morals. Kosher laws were kept. Eg burning of finger nails, turned on the light the day before the sabbath etc. They believe that the TORAH is the word of God therefore can not be changed. Lots of the policies have been influenced by this group. Women are separated from the men & are not obligated to attend the synagogue services. Males have beards because it is said in the Hebrew Bible that man should not shave their faces or trim their side burns.
Conservation Jews
(Age of Enlightenment) Humans added & changed things to the TORAH, therefore this Hebrew Bible is a mixture of the word of God & human. Wanted to find the underlying meaning, and may not follow all rules. On the sabbath would not work, but still can do daily activities. Most Jews in North America. Some will allow the men & women to mix in the synagogue services.
hasidism
(branch of ordothox jews - Age of Enlightenment) feel that throughout the world there is many charismatic leaders, and therefore can interact with God. One of these leaders is a man named, BAAL SHEM TOV.
BAAL SHEM TOV
(branch of ordothox jews- called hasidism - Age of Enlightenment) felt that everything is a gift from God, and that even in a time of suffering, sorrow & dispair one must worship God. May sing, dance & pray together in groups.
nazi
____ party, & Hitler began the Shoah (Holocaust). When this party & Hitler come into power they blame the Jews for their problems or other minority groups.
anti-semitism
or also called anti-jew. Hitler was able to get away with his discrimination against the Jews because Germany had a history of _________.
holocaust
means `burnt offering.` time of persecution for the Jews. Many Jews refer to the holocaust to the SHOAH which means `calamity`
Martin Luther
famous protestant reformer wrote about the Jews & writes negative things.
ghettos
places where Jews where deported off. Famous one is Warsaw ____ in Poland, largest, with 7 people per room. Not proper sanitation.
final solution
done by the nazi parties & Hitler, this was to solve the problem of Jews, they believed to get rid of the Jews would make everything better.
Work camps
done by the nazi parties & Hitler, when Jews were unable to work they were sent to Death Camps.
Nazis
thought that soldiers killing Jews by shooting them was unconvinced and feared that it was harmful to the soldiers, therefore they started using gas chambers.
Elie Wiesel
is a surviver of the Shoah with his family. Wrote books about his experiences, and started a foundation.
Shoah
The Shoah emerged in Germany with the Nazi party. It was based on extreme anti-Semitism, whose roots extend quite far back in the country's history. It consisted of stripping Jews of certain rights, deporting them to ghettos and, then, later, to forced labor camps. Finally, as part of the "Final Solution", Jews were sent to death camps (e.g. Auschwitz in Poland). Not surprisingly, the Shoah greatly affected Jewish belief, which is reflected in the works of Elie Wiesel and Anne Frank.
As a result of the Shoah Jews were soon given a homeland in Israel, though many Jews advocated for a homeland many years before. This movement, called Zionism, began in the early 19th century by a man by the name of Theodore Herzl.
Jews
many _____ felt that after the holocaust believe that there was no God since the horrible events occurrence & started loosing faith.
Anne Frank
survives of the Soah, lived in the Netherlands, and hid in the walls of her house, she wrote a diary, was exposed and sent to a camp, she dies, father survives the Death Camp.
zionism
movement named after the temple zion. Began with a man named Theordor Herzl, had a belief of a way to end Jewish persecution is to end.
bris
(jewish ceremonies) is the 1st ceremony a Jewish male comes across which is circumcision, after 8 days of birth. Here this child is also given a Hebrew name. Practiced by Orthodox Jews, not all other Jews practice though. There may be a similar naming ceremony for girls
jewish ceremonies
bris & mohel
mohel
(jewish ceremonies) Individual (male usually) who is trained for the bris ceremony (circumcision ceremony)
bar or bat mitzvah
(jewish ceremonies) coming of age ceremony. practice to sing for the ceremony, given a piece of the torah that is rolled up, placed in a box, and worn, not allowed to be opened unless by a scribe. Reason is to make the boy responsible for his actions, prior to this ceremony the father is responsible for his son`s sins.
bat mitzvah
(jewish ceremonies) coming of age ceremony for females
huppah
(jewish ceremonies) after bar mitzvah (coming of age ceremony), is the wedding ceremony. Most have this structure which is symbolic for a new home, most will take a wine glass & step on it, symbolic for the fragility of marriage & to remind them of the destruction of the 2nd temple.
Divorce in Jews
is usually initiated by the male, and if the male does initiate the _______ he has to pay his wife a substantial amount of money. _______ is allowed if there has been adultery, if the male finds another women attactive
Judaism
is traced from the mothers line, therefore is a Jewish father marries a non-Jew mother and they have a child, this child is not Jewish, even if he or she is practicing.
death
in judaism happens very quickly, cremation is not allowed, only burial, due to the belief of the resurrection. Some send the bodies to Israel, believing that Israel is the first place where the resurrection occurs. Buried within days, Shivah is mourning
Shivah
is the ceremony of mourning expressed after the death of a Jew
630
there is ____ commandments that Jews are supposed to live by
challah
sweet bread that is given to Jews on the sabbath day
sabbath
goes back to the bible stating on the seventh day God rested. Usually begins Friday afternoon
tefillin
also during the sabbath service, Jews will go through prayer, and use this black box with a written down prayer, and roll a tiny piece of paper with a prayer on it, that is worn on the head or the arm of the males for the sabbath service.
mezuzah
is a door post, that is used in Jewish homes on the door frames to do a prayer
tallit
means `prayer shawl.` Has knots in it that have 5 stands knotted together representative of the 1st 5 books of moses.
agnostic
means not knower or skeptic
sacred
the counter to profane; the quality of things (places, objects, times, events, etc) associated with the domain of the gods
berginia
land bridge was a land bridge roughly 1,000 miles (1,600 km) north to south at its greatest extent, which joined present-day Alaska and eastern Siberia at various times during the Pleistocene ice ages.
asceist
one who rejects ordinary social life for exceptional religious discipline, which often involves poverty, celibacy & seclusion
SIKSIKA
blackfoot
pîikani
or called Northern Peigans are a First Nation, part of the Blackfoot Confederacy. Oldman River, west of Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada. The modern reserve is on Brocket, Alberta
KAINAI
or blood tribe
mishnah
means repetition - the primary collect of oral torah, complementing the written torah of the tanak.
talmud
means study - the misnah combined with commentary
maimonides
a spanish jewish philosipher & commentator on the talmud, he formulated 13 principles of Judaism
PHARISEES
a non-priestly group, whose concern about religious purity & the study of the torah & oral traditions gave them popular influence in society. their traditions influence ideas in judaism
ASHKENAZIM
jews of German background, including most east european jews. yiddish was their language, & christianity the dominant culture under which they took their shape
ZIONISM
FOUNDED BY THEORDO HERZL. PRIMARILY A SECULAR MOVEMENT, WHOSE GOAL WAS TO ESTABLISH A JEWISH HOMELAND
ROSH HASHANAH
means beginning of the year - jewish new years, in sept to oct. begins a 10 day solemn period of repentance & self-examination, which end on yom kippur
yom kipper
means day of atonement - the holiest day of the jewish calendar, marked by fasting, prayer & repentance
mohel
a person trained in the procedure of circumcision
ISRAEL
land & independance were especially cherished by ppl whose beginnings were that of nomadic strangers. these jews were called the promised land, became independant of the jewish nation
SEDER
(passover) a highly ritualized meal, in which jews recall the exodus of the hebrews from egyptian slavery. specific foods are used to illistrate aspects of the story
KIPPAH/YARMULKE
a skull cap worn by jewish men. orthodox jews cover their heads in all public places; conservative jews when at prayer
TALLIT
PRAYER SHAWL, WITH 4 CORNERS & FRINGES ON EACH CORNER. A SMALLER ONE IS WORN BY ORTHODOX JEWS, SOMEWHAT AS AN UNDERSHIRT
TEFILLIN or phylactery
small leather oxes containing portions of the torah, bound to the forehead & right arm during prayer
MEZUZAH
means doorpost - portions of torah in a small container attached to the doorposts of a jewish home
YIDDISH
the term is an english form of the german word for jewish. is a dialect of german spoke by ashkenazi jews. most of the vocab is german; scriot uses hebrew alphabet
Fertile Crescent
is a region in Western Asia. It includes the comparatively fertile regions of Mesopotamia and the Levant. The region is often considered the cradle of civilization; it saw the development of many of the earliest human civilizations, and is the birthplace of writing and the wheel.
epic of Gilgamesh
often referred to as the babylionic flood story, it recounts the mythical adventures of a mesopotamian king & his friend Enkidu. 1 of the stories recounts a great flood. it is one of the oldest recorded tories on the earth.
roman
the last great mediterranean empire. christianized, the western empire fell.
gilgamesh
a king who became the hero of the lengendary EPIC _____. he is viewed as partly divine & had initially been a poor ruler. he reformed, and his story recounts a series of adventures as he tries & fail to win immortality.
classical greece
various confederations of city-states here & in Aegean. its mythology, art, architecture, philosphy, science shaped much of the thinking in the western world
Utnapishtim
in the Babylonian Gilgamesh epic, survivor of a mythological flood whom Gilgamesh consults about the secret of immortality.
Canaan
is a historical and biblical name roughly corresponding to the region encompassing modern-day Israel, Palestinian territories, Lebanon, and the western parts of Jordan.
Exodus
means "departure, expedition, procession" is the second book of the Hebrew Bible, and the second of five books of the Torah
Decalogue
or Ten Commandments, are any of three lists of religious and moral imperatives said to be given to Moses by the Abrahamic God and in the form of two stone tablets.
Tabernacle
means "residence" or "dwelling place" according to the Hebrew Torah/Old Testament, was the portable dwelling place for the divine presence from the time of the Exodus from Egypt through the conquering of the land of Canaan.
Nebuchadnezzar
was king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. According to the Bible, he conquered Judah and Jerusalem, and sent the Jews into exile. Destructed the First Temple. He is featured in the Book of Daniel and is also mentioned in several other books of the Bible.
Torah or Pentateuch
or called Hebrew Bible, is the first of three parts of the Tanakh, the founding religious document of Judaism, is divided into five books
Nevi'im
means "Prophets" - is the second of the three major sections in the Hebrew Bible, the Tanakh. It falls between the Torah (teachings) and Ketuvim (writings).
Ketuvim or K'thubhim
means "writings" - is the third and final section of the Tanak (Hebrew Bible), after Torah (teachings) and Nevi'im (prophets).
Shema
means "Hear, [O] Israel" - are the first two words of a section of the Torah (Hebrew Bible) that is a centerpiece of the morning and evening Jewish prayer services. The first verse encapsulates the monotheistic essence of Judaism: "Hear, O Israel: the Lord is our God, the Lord is one," found in Deuteronomy 6:4
Cyrus
was King of Anshan in Persia. managed to capture the Assyrian capital Nineveh. This was effectively the end of the Assyrian Empire
Zoroastrianism
is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of prophet Zoroaster and was formerly among the world's largest religions. It was probably founded some time before the 6th century BCE in Persia (Iran).
HELLENISM
the study of the greek
macabeen revolt
were a Jewish rebel army who took control of Judea, which had been a client state of the Seleucid Empire. They founded the Hasmonean dynasty, reasserting the Jewish religion, expanding the boundaries of the Land of Israel and reducing the influence of Hellenism.
Sanhedrin
means "sitting together," was an assembly of twenty-three judges appointed in every city in the Biblical Land of Israel.
Gemara
means "[to] study" or "learning by tradition" - is the component of the Talmud comprising rabbinical analysis of and commentary on the Mishnah.
Kabbalah/Kabala
means "receiving"; is a set of esoteric teachings meant to explain the relationship between an eternal and mysterious Creator and the mortal and finite universe (His creation).
Zohar
is the foundational work in the literature of Jewish mystical thought known as Kabbalah. It is a group of books including commentary on the mystical aspects of the Torah (the five books of Moses) and scriptural interpretations as well as material on Mysticism, mythical cosmogony, and mystical psychology. contains a discussion of the nature of God, the origin and structure of the universe, the nature of souls, redemption, the relationship of Ego to Darkness and "true self" to "The Light of God," and the relationship between the "universal energy" and man.
Sephardi Jews
spanish Jewish people.
Auschwitz
was a network of Nazi German concentration and extermination camps built and operated in Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany during the Second World War. It was the largest of the German concentration camps
Hasidism
is a branch of Orthodox Judaism that promotes spirituality and joy through the popularisation and internalisation of Jewish mysticism as the fundamental aspects of the Jewish faith.
Baal Shem Tov
was a Jewish mystical rabbi. He is considered to be the founder of Hasidic Judaism
shofar
is a horn, traditionally that of a ram, used for Jewish religious purposes. blowing is incorporated in synagogue services on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur.
Sundance
is a religious ceremony practiced by a number of First Nations peoples. Many of the ceremonies have features in common, such as specific dances and songs passed down through many generations, the use of traditional drums, the sacred pipe, tobacco offerings, praying, fasting and, in some cases, the piercing of skin on the chest or back for the men and arms for the women.
vision quest
is a rite of passage in some Native American cultures.
is a turning point in life taken before puberty to find oneself and the intended spiritual and life direction. When an older child is ready, he or she will go on a personal, spiritual quest alone in the wilderness, often in conjunction with a period of fasting. This usually lasts for a number of days while the child is attuned to the spirit world. Usually, a Guardian animal will come in a vision or dream, and the child's life direction will appear at some point. The child returns to the tribe, and once the child has grown, will pursue that direction in life. After , the child may become an apprentice of an adult in the tribe of the shown direction (Medicine Man, boatmaker and so on).

is the learning and initiation process of the apprentice under the guidance of an elders
- Writing-on-Stone petroglyph site & medicine wheel
modern jewish divisions
orthodox (preserved), conservatiove (preserved & modified), reform (kosher)& reconstructive (chosen ppl, sees judaism as evolutionary culture & product of human reflection)
jewish rituals
- jewish calendar
- rosh hashaah: new year - 10 days of solemn relfection, self exam & repentance
- yom kipper: (10 days after) holiest days, highest point of solemn & repentance
- pesach or passover: feast of unlevened bread celebrating exodus which marks their beginnings as free ppl
- hanukkah: feast of lights, celebrates the rededication of the temple, lighting 8 candles
- shabbat or sabbath: day of rest celebrating gods rest of the 7th day of creation
jewish rights of passage
- bris: circumcision, 8 days after birth & a naming ceremony, symbolizing the covenant with God & abraham
- bar mitzvah: boy reaches puberty (13), reading from the Torah
-marriage: groom crushes a glass under foot
- death: week of mourning, no creamation
important ppl in judaism
- moses: national liberator, religious reformer, law give provided substainstial elements to the Hebrew religion, freed the slaves & rose against the egyptians, 10 commandments, provided Gods name Yahweh, presented the Torah
-abraham: father of the Hebrews, covenant with God for circumcision, God promised land & security, sons are patriarchs
- david: great king, restored israel