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first nation - Origins

According to many Anthropologists, they entered the Americas via Beringia. Nevertheless, they have different stories as to how they arrived here. One such story is the Iroquois creation myth of Sky Woman. Regardless of their exact origins, today there is a tremendous diversity amongst them. First instance, in Southern Alberta there are the Siksika, Piikani and Kainai (all part of the Blackfoot Confederacy).

Blackfoot Confederacy

Siksika, Piikani and Kainai

first nation - beliefs

belief systems are a mixture of Polytheism, Henotheism and Monotheism. Other beliefs include two souls, an afterlife and the trickster (as found in the Haida myth about the Raven and the Sun).

first nation - sacredness

The Vision Quest is a ritual that is closely tied to a sense of sacredness. Sometimes one will be granted a totem after undergoing this ritual. Vision Quest sites close to Lethbridge include Aisinai'pi, Mastoeeas and Ninastako. Medicine Wheels are objects that are considered to be sacred.

first nation - rituals

Sun Dance is practiced by many, which is an excellent example of asceticism. Another common ritual is the Pow Wow.

first nation - ethics

generally revolve around virtues, a shared humanity and respect of nature. eg:

Try to do something for your people - something difficult. Have pity on your people and love them. If a man is poor, help him. Give him and his family food, give them whatever they ask for. If there is discord among your people, intercede.

No tribe has the right to sell, even to each other, much less to strangers...Sell a country! Why not sell the air, the great sea, as well as the earth? Didn't the Great Spirit make them all for the use of his children?

first nations - community

In general, most religious rituals are done communally. Exceptions to this rule are healing ceremonies performed by shamans (e.g. Navajo sand art).


There are approximately 13 million ______ in the world, the majority of whom live in the United States and Israel. The 2001 census recorded 330,000 _____ in Canada, about 1% of the population. Major ____ centers in Canada include Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver and Winnipeg.

1800 BC.E.

Traditional date of Abraham

1200 BC.E.

Traditional date of the Exodus

1000 B.C.E.

Jerusalem named capital of United Monarchy under King David

950 B.C.E.

Completion of First Temple by Solomon

722 B.C.E.

Fall of northern kingdom (Israel) to Assyria

586 B.C.E.

Fall of southern kingdom (Judah) to Babylon and destruction of the First Temple

515 B.C.E.

Dedication of Second Temple

400 B.C.E.

TANAK (H) finalized

331 B.C.E.

Alexander the Great conquers Palestine

167-164 B.C.E.

Maccabean Revolt

63 B.C.E.

Roman conquest of Jerusalem

70 C.E.

Destruction of the Second Temple by Romans

200 C.E.

Completion of the Mishnah

600 C.E.

Completion of the Babylonian Talmud

1135-1204 C.E.

Life of philosopher Moses Maimonides

1492 C.E.

Expulsion of Jews from Spain

1700-1760 C.E.

Life of Baal Shem Tov

1897 C.E.

Founding of the Zionist movement

1937-1945 C.E.

The Shoah

1948 C.E.

Creation of the modern state of Israel

Pharasees, Saducees, Essenes, Zealots

Jewish groups found under Roman rule (63 B.C.E. - 70 C.E.), though most of their roots can be traced back to the period of Maccabeean rule


After the destruction of the second temple (70 C.E.) the Pharisees, Saducees, Essenes and Zealots were wiped out. The Rabbinic tradition that emerged was most influenced by the Pharisees.

ashkenazi, sephardic

These two Jewish groups developed from the Rabbinic tradition in the Middle Ages. Their main differences involve language and countries of origin. Kabbalism was also popular at this time, though it is not tied to the Rabbis.

reform, conservative, orthodox

These are the modern Jewish groups that emerged from the Ashkenazi tradition.

judasim origin

According to Anthropologists, _____ emerged from a semi-nomadic tribe called the Hebrews, who lived in the Fertile Crescent. Nevertheless, according to the Hebrew Bible, ____ (and humanity at large) emerged with Adam and Eve. This story is celebrated in the holiday Rosh Hashanah, which uses a shofar to awaken Jews from their "moral slumber." Ten days afterwards, Yom Kippur is celebrated.


flood has many similarities with the Mesopotamian story of Utnapishtim, which is found in the Epic of Gilgamesh. These similarities have led some scholars to speculate that Judaism borrowed some narrative traditions from the Mesopotamians.

The Monarchic Period

The Jewish nation was ruled by a series of three kings. The first of which was Saul. The second king was David, who, according to tradition, composed the Psalms and formed an everlasting covenant with YHVH. The third king was Solomon, to whom the Wisdom Literature is attributed and who undertook the construction of the First Temple in Jerusalem. After Solomon, the kingdom split into the northern region of Israel and the southern region of Judah.

Foreign Rule

Eventually Israel was captured by the Assyrians and Judah was captured by the Babylonians (under Nebuchadnezzar). Babylonian rule led many major developments, including the Diaspora, the Messiah, and the completion of the TANAK(H) (which consists of the Torah, Neviim and Ketuvim).
Persian rule replaced Babylonian rule and led to the construction of the Second Temple under King Cyrus. Cyrus was a Zoroastrian, which is a Persian religion that strongly influenced Jewish belief.
Persian rule was replaced by Greek rule, which was known for its practice of Hellenism. The Macabeean Revolt occurred under Greek rule and is celebrated in the Jewish holiday of Hanukah.
Greek rule was replaced by Roman rule, under which a number of Jewish groups were found, including Sadducees, Pharisees, Zealots and Essenes (who, according to some scholars, wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls).

Destruction of the Second Temple

happened in 70 C.E. led to a number of significant changes in Judaism. For one, the Wailing Wall became a place of pilgrimage. Secondly, the synagogue became the primary place of worship (e.g. the Great Synagogue in Budapest, Hungary). Thirdly, the Rabbinic tradition, which placed great emphasis on the Torah, emerged. Under the Rabbis, the Talmud (which contains the Mishnah and Gemera) was written. Fourthly, purity laws (e.g. kosher) became very important.

Middle Ages

Due to a second Diaspora, Jews spread across Europe. These different Jewish groups began to develop their own customs and languages. Usually, such groups are broken up into Ashkenazi (who speak Yiddish) and Sephardic (who speak Ladino). Also around this time Jewish mysticism became popular. Kabbalah is a form of Jewish mysticism that uses the Zohar as its primary text. Finally, Jewish philosophy was also beginning to grow in popularity (e.g. the philosophy of Maimonides).


Under the enlightenment a number of different Jewish groups emerged, including Reform, Conservative and Orthodox. A branch of Orthodox Judaism is Hasidism, which tends to gather around various charismatic leaders (e.g. Baal Shem Tov).


emerged in Germany with the Nazi party. It was based on extreme anti-Semitism, whose roots extend quite far back in the country's history. It consisted of stripping Jews of certain rights, deporting them to ghettos and, then, later, to forced labor camps. Finally, as part of the "Final Solution", Jews were sent to death camps (e.g. Auschwitz in Poland). Not surprisingly, the Shoah greatly affected Jewish belief, which is reflected in the works of Elie Wiesel and Anne Frank.
As a result of the Shoah Jews were soon given a homeland in Israel, though many Jews advocated for a homeland many years before. This movement, called Zionism, began in the early 19th century by a man by the name of Theodore Herzl.


1st nations medicine person, thought to be able to converse with the sacred or the divine. Can leave this world. Can be given special information, which can be used to heal ppl. Can ward off bad spirits that can cause sickness. Use sand painting or sand art (ritual that lasts 2 - 9 days).

sand paintings

must be destruted after the ritual is preformed, if not evil can enter.

jewish origin

fertile-cresent, made living comparatively easy for them. Originated from a tribe of hewbrews

hebrew bible

= is the old testament


calls their bible the hebrew bible

adam and eve

the creation of the earth & man. Forms adam out of clay, breathed into adam to give him life. Adam is lonely, so God makes eve out of a rib from adam. God places them into the garden of eden. They can do anything they want in this garden except eat from this tree of central knowledge. A serpent pursways them to eat from the tree. Eating makes them realize the difference between good and evil, making them hide, God finds out and kicks them out of the paradise.

adam & eve

story is viewed are either: humans sin because they are evil, humans sin because they are ignorant. Jews view this story's meaning as both.

rosh hashanah

(during the new year) is the celebration of the story of adam & eve. God here tallies ppl's sins = a time for the jews to repent & ask for forgiveness.


is a horn used in the rosh hashanah. To awaken ppl from their moral slumber, and awaken them to face their sins

yom kippur

10 days after rosh hashanah. Is the holiest days on the jewish calendar. Collectively repent their sins & forgive each other. During they with stain from smoking, drinking, eating & sexual activities.


(stories from the hebrew bible) is a descendant from adam & eve. At this time ppl aren't listening to God's commandments, so God decides to have a flood & start the world anew, God notices this man has been faithful. He instructs him to build a arc, and take 2 of every animals, and it floods for 40 days and 40 nights. Noah sends out a raven & then a dove to find out if there is dry land.


have a flood story as well called "upnapishtim" - about an immortal man called upnapishtim. Tells a story about the Gods flooding the earth, & decided humanity was on the wrong course, floods for 7 days. sends out a dove, sends out a raven, to find dry land. Differences in time frame. They believe this story was borrowed by the Jews.


means "father of many" is a descendant of noah - had a son isaac - grandson Jacob & 12 great grandsons


abraham was in errb and God says if you follow me I will give you a promised land which was called ______ or modern day Israel. And was also promised (covenant) by God that they will have many descendants, problem is that they are very old = sleeps with hagar (his maid servant) and has ishmael. Sarah his wife miracuously becomes pregnant and gives birth to isaac and banishes hagar & ishmael.


is a promise (made between God and someone) are either conditional or unconditional

universal covenants

apply to everyone regardless of their region or race

specific covenants

specific, may be only for the chosen ppl.

unconditional covenants

no matter what ppl do God will still keep these promises

conditional covenants

rules that ppl have to follow in order for God to follow through with his promises.


is a universal unconditional covenant that God gave to noah after the flood that he will no longer flood the earth


God promises ______ many children & the promise land if they all follow the 10 commandments, circumcision.


is an external sign of obeying God - and limits their lust


God tells Abraham to sacrifice ______, then an angel comes and tells Abraham to not sacrifice his son & that God was just testing his faith, & then ends up sacrificing a ram


is also called israel which means wrestling with God. Has 12 sons called the 12 tribes of israel.


(hebrew story) egyptian rulers become fearful of the jews b cuz they are becoming too strong so they start enslaving them and killing the males. woman wants to save her baby son, so she puts him in a basket and sends him down the nile river. The pharoh's daughter finds him and names him moses which means "one who is taken from the water"


knows he is jewish, sees an egyptian beating a jew and kills him which forces him to flee. while he is in the desert he comes across a burning bush, out of the bush a voice arises saying that he wants to set the ppl free, and that this is now his job. This voice is Yahweh (YHVH/ YHWH = jewish God - Jehovah - HOLY OTHER)


is monotheistic, some scholars believe in the past that they once where polytheistic or henotheistic.


tells pharaoh to let the jews go, pharaoh says no and he says that God will make 10 plagues: loctus, frogs, fries, water turns to blood, and the killing of the 1st born. To show the Egyptians Yahweh's power. moses instructs them to kill a lamb and paint the blood over their doorway which will make the angel or death away, and instructs the jews to make the unleavened bread (bread without yeast)


celebration of the freeing of the hebrews from the egyptians, celebrated with the seder meal. 2 green vegetables = new life. Meat/lamb = symbolic to the lamb that was sacrificed. Bitter herbs = symbolic of the bitterness of slavery. Mixture of nuts & fruit = slavery. hard boiled egg, which is not eaten during the seder meal = suspected that it symbolizes the resiliency of the jewish ppl, and the tougher they became. Unleavened bread. Some will take all the yeast out of their homes.


the Hebrews fleeing. The pharaoh wants to get his slaves back & sends his army after them. They meet at the red sea. Yahweh allows moses to part the red sea, and they cross, and when the egyptians try to cross the water floods back and they all drowned

40 years

after the exodus, the hebrews wander, to mount sinai, where moses receives the 10 commandments (decalogue).


means "10 words" = 10 commandments

10 commandments

- no other God before me
- no false idols
- no murder/adultery

ark of the covenant

moses comes down from the mt sinai and places the 10 commandments into the ________. Is 2 gold angels forming an ark. ppl carry this around wherever they go and kept in a tabernacle. ppl must follow these commandments in order for God to follow through with his promises.

battle of jericho

Yahweh instructed jewish ppl to march around these imparable walls of jericho for 7 days while blowing horns. & they all came tumbling down. Then the jews went into jericho and killed every living thing within jericho. Theory: Jews were able to retake over the promised land because the canaanites were farmers and that was a difficult place to farm, and they asked the jews to help them. OR the majority of the ppl were very poor, and when the jews moved in and the poor ppl became jewish to get a sense of equality.


Sarah, Hagar, Ishmael and Isaac highlights the Jewish themes of the Promised Land (Canaan) and Covenant (which, later on, has ties to the prophets). Abraham is considered a patriarch of Judaism, along with his son Isaac, grandson Jacob and 12 great-grandsons (who formed the 12 tribes of Israel).
According to tradition, the Jewish people were led from Egypt by Moses, who, in turn, was led by YHVH. This is the story of the Exodus and is celebrated in the holiday of Passover, which includes a Seder meal. According to Jewish tradition, after the Exodus YHVH gave the Decalogue to Moses on Mt. Sinai. The Decalogue was then kept in the Ark in the Covenant, which was housed in the Tabernacle.
Later on, the Jews were able to re-capture the Promised Land via a series of battles (e.g. Jericho) under the leadership of various military heroes (e.g. Joshua).


the jews unite under a monachy or a kingship. this man was the 1st king. appointed king by military heros, who wanted a central figure to reign over the jews. their group was in constant conflict with the philistines, and they had a giant named Goliath. David is a young boy who says God ordered him in a dream to kill Goliath, and tells saul, saul gives him armor, and david says no all i need is a sling shot with 3 pebbles. And kills Goliath, and chops off his own head with Goliaths own sword.


is appointed by saul a higher up person in the heirachy. David becomes the 2nd king of the jewish ppl, and is the ideal ruler. God promises David that all future kings will come from Davids line (everlasting covenant). David wrote the psalms, which means stringed instrument. which were meant to b sung with harps.


3rd and final king of the monachy. Known for his wisdom. felt that one could become wise apart from God. wrote the wisdom literature (proverbs & ecclesiastes), tells life as it is. wasnt written until many years after him

first jewish temple

under solomon this was built. inner sanctum (the holy of holies), and not many ppl were allowed in here. usually only the priest was allowed in their once on the holiest day in the jewish calendar


the northern kingdom, contains 10 of 12 tribes. Since has more tribes is much stronger.


southern kingdom, only contains 2 out of the 12 tribes. where the term "judaism" comes from. Is more spiritual, contains: jerusalem, the 1st temple...

judah & israel

are both taken over

southern kingdom

was taken over by the babylonians. and they are taken back to babylon, but they are still able to practice their religion. This is where the ark of the covenant is destroyed. under babylonian rule a lot of growth happens in the jews


was a strong king, marched into the southern king and over took them

northern kingdom

scratters, Assyrians comes in a destroy. 10 lost tribes of israel


means dispersion. live in this state, away from home land.


means anointed one. jews develop this notion that their will arise a great leader that will rebuild the jewish temple and bring them out of diaspora

jewish messiah

is jesus, however jews do not view jesus as the messiah or the son of God. They view him in a favorable light, however are still waiting for their messiah. Jews for Jesus is opposite.

under babylonian rule

jewish ppl become to write down their oral stories


hebrew bible, or as Christians would call it: the old testiment. Is an acronim for:
- TORAH - 1st 5 books (Pentateuch)
-NEVIIM (prophetic books)
- KETUVIM (other writings)


are able to speak to God and speak on his behalf.


are very expensive because they are all hand written and are not allowed to be used in Jewish services if there is any errors in it.


babylonian rule was taken over by the _____ (eygpt, turkey, iran...) Their king (Cyrus) allows the jews to return to their promised land because he wants to restore the ancient religions. Finances the construction of their 2nd temple

2nd temple

is the same as the 1st minus the ark of the covenant.


still exists today, under persian rule. are dualistic, believe that there is forces of evil (demons) & good (angels) which are always in constant battle. There will be a great battle at the end of the world, as well as a resurrection of the dead, and believe in a final judgment, and the good ppl will allowed into heaven and the bad ppl will go to hell.

persian rule

is believed by scholars to have brought on many Zoroastrianism beliefs to the jews. TANAKA was completed under this rule.


persians are over taken by the ______


under greek rule there was ________ which means "i speak greek," Jews were attracted to this culture & customs, to fit in with the greek. Dropped some of their jewish culture & customs. Greek ruler wanted to control the jews by taking over the jewish temple and makes it a temple for the greek God Zeus, and places new priests in the temple, and forbids the jews from practicing their own beliefs. The MACCABEANS are the jewish group that becomes very angry with this greek ruler


take back their jewish temple. and come across a candelabrum is symbolic for the burning bush, and there is only oil left for 1 more day, miraculously the oil lasts for 8 days, giving them time to replenish its oil (celebrated by Hanukkah)


celebrates the 8 days the candelabrum burned. occurred during xmas therefore the jews elevated this celebration making them not feel left out from the christian celebration.

maccabean rule

judasim develops into different groups, and the romans over take the greeks.


belong to the priestly class and were coleaders of the SANHEDRIN (jewish court of law).


belonged to the middle class and were coleaders of the SANHEDRIN


wanted to end roman rule at any cost


belonged to the priestly class. some scholars believe that they eventually settled in the area around the dead sea and subsequently wrote the DEAD SEA SCROLLS


final judgement - influenced judaism - good vs evil - God was called `wise Lord`

judaism rituals

- bris
- mohel
- bar or bat mitzvah
- shivah


adam & eve demonstrates:
-humans are both evil & ignorant


adam & eve demonstrates:
-humans are both evil

land & decendants

God promised Abraham... in return for follwing him


God promised to set the ppl free from the Egyptians


God promised to never flood the earth

Jewish God`s

name is YHWH - Yahweh - Jehovah

Monarchic periods

3 kings: salomon, issacac.. **

monarchic period

or period of 3 kings


believe that the Messiah is yet to come


believe that Jesus is the Messiah


Jewish holiday that celebrates the Macabeen Revolt

Yom Kippur

Jewish holiday that celebrates the new year


Jewish holiday that celebrates the passing over of the angel of death


group used violence & terrorism to try to end Roman rule


dead sea scrolls - apocalyptic group

pharisees & sadducees

are both involved in the jewish law


are the more popular of the 2 jewish groups

destruction of the 2nd temple

in 70 C.E. led to a number of significant changes in Judaism. For one, the Wailing Wall became a place of pilgrimage. Secondly, the synagogue became the primary place of worship (e.g. the Great Synagogue in Budapest, Hungary). Thirdly, the Rabbinic tradition, which placed great emphasis on the Torah, emerged. Under the Rabbis, the Talmud (which contains the Mishnah and Gemera) was written. Fourthly, purity laws (e.g. kosher) became very important.

after the destruction of the 2nd temple

judaism began to change because the event was so aweful

wailing wall

wall built around the 2nd jewish temple - one part of wall was left standing, the western or __________. Which after became an area of pilgrimage.


with the destruction of the 2nd temple, many Jews go to worship at ________, which means `to gather.`They existed prior to the destruction to the 2nd temple. Was meant to be a place to go if the temple was too far to travel. Some where in ppls homes. The significance & importance of the ________ increases greatly after the destruction of the 2nd temple, and are build for the sole purpose of worship & are built outside of homes, & is symbolic now. All are facing east, to face Jerusalem. The TORA scroll is there, and is found in a cupboard that is sometimes called an arc or the arc of the covenant. Candelabra is symbolic for the burning bush & God.

Great synagogue

found in Budapest, Hungary. Largest synagogue in the world. Hebrew writing, Star or shield of David (occurred after the destruction of the 2nd temple)

Kippah or Yarnical**

male Jews wear this hat as a sign of respect

rabbinic, rabbis

(occurred after the destruction of the 2nd temple) groups begin to form. Means `leader.`Teach the Torah. Because of the Zealots uprising the destruction occurred, therefore this group was wiped out. Sadducee disappeared. Essences are very apocalyptic. One group that remains is the Pharisees, and here the ______ emerge.


can refer to the TANKA (the 1st 5 books), all Jewish law, all Jewish books. Depends on the context.


at a synagogue service the person leading the service does not have to be a ______. _______ is NOT hereditary, all you have to do to become a _______ is attend to school. There is female ______, some Jewish groups do not recognize them however.

prior to the destruction of the 2nd temple

Judaism is fractured & in many groups

after the the destruction of the 2nd temple

Judaism is more unified.

after the the destruction of the 2nd temple

more significance was given to the TORAH


hebrew bible


(after the destruction of the 2nd temple) MISHNAH is a oral torah that is collected by the rabbis. About food laws, divorce laws, farming techniques... Rabbis wrote commentaries about these laws called GEMARA. Together these form the ______


(found in the TALMUD - after the destruction of the 2nd temple) is a oral torah that is collected by the rabbis. About food laws, divorce laws, farming techniques...


(found in the TALMUD - after the destruction of the 2nd temple) Rabbis wrote commentaries about these laws called _______. Trying to relate the TALMUD to modern times.


is the jewish day of rest


(after the destruction of the 2nd temple) Is a food law, and if a food is pure within Judaism it is called _______. Purity laws are transposed onto everyday life. Jews are not allowed to eat: Pork, Shell fish, Birds of Prey. Also how the food is served & prepared influences if it is allowed to be eaten by the Jews. Meat & milk must be kept separate. Separate plates, wait between eating milk & meat. Blood must be completely drained for the animal by slices in the animal in the jugular.


in order for Jews to be able to eat meat the animal must have both cloven hooves & chew their cud, this makes the meat _____. Sea food must have scales in order for it to be ______. Applies to bodily fluids, some are considered impure.

purity laws

are important to the Jews because they help avoid sickness, awaiting the Messiah, MAIN: to help create group coherence within Judaism.


(Jewish group that formed due to the diaspora after the destruction of the 2nd temple) Germany, Polland (eastern europe) spoke Yiddish. Hit hard by the Holocaust, and ended up immigrating to North America or the USA.


(formed due to the diaspora after the destruction of the 2nd temple)mixture of Hebrew & German, language spoken by the Ashkenazim Jews.


(Jewish group that formed due to the diaspora after the destruction of the 2nd temple) mainly in spain, portugal & northern Africa. Most differences between the other major Jewish group is culture, quite similar. Do not get along. Experienced tremendous persecution. Christians gave them 3 options, flee, be killed or convert to Christian.


or dispersion occurred again after the destruction of the 2nd temple. Jewish ppl begin to scatter throughout Europe = various pockets of Jews form = 2 major groups: Ashkenazim & Sephardim.

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