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POSITIVE PSYCH FINAL
Terms in this set (120)
A basic premise of positive psychology is that the field of psychology
is out of balance with too much focus on negative human behaviors.
Social psychologists have documented one of the most important contributions to well-being, which is
the powerful connection between relationships with others and personal happiness.
For positive psychologists, one problem with the disease model is that it
implies that the mental health is the simply the absence of mental illness.
The most recent studies in health psychology are of particular interest to positive psychologists because they suggest that
positive emotions may effect our health in ways that are essentially opposite from those for negative emotions.
One of the more noteworthy findings of survey researchers studying subjective well-being or happiness is that the connection between money and happiness is
overall, very weak except for the very poor.
Within psychology's recent history, _ psychology has been one of the stronger voices for a more positive approach to the study of human behavior.
Seligman's three-part description of happiness describes a pleasant life, an engaged life, and a meaningful life. In his analysis a meaningful life derives from
going beyond self-interest through involvements in something larger than the self, such as serving others.
The major finding of the nun study was that
cheerful and upbeat nuns lived significantly longer that less cheerful nuns.
The emergence of positive psychology in the late 1990s had much to do with cultural trends, or zeitgeist, captured in the phrase
the paradox of affluence.
Human resilience refers to
good outcomes despite serious threats and challenge.
Subjective well-being (SWB) is defined and measured by
life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect.
Positive psychologists argue that statistics on the objective facts of people's lives give a misleading view of well-being because
the facts of people's lives are not strongly related to their subjective interpretations.
The difference between hedonic and eudaimonic conceptions of happiness boils down to the difference between
pleasure/happiness and meaning/personal expressiveness.
According to Waterman's studies, eudaimonic enjoyment results from activities that create feelings of
personal expressiveness, meaning, challenge, competence, and growth.
Harker and Kleenex examined the type of smile women showed in their women
Duchenne smiles were related to greater health and happiness and more stable and satisfying marriages.
According to research by Diener and his colleagues, happiness is built more on the 1._ of positive emotions than on their 2._.
According to your textbook authors, a basic difference between hedonic and eudaimonic approaches to understanding happiness and well-being is that
hedonic approaches are "research driven" and eudaimonic approaches are "theory driven."
When Waterman had people rate their 5 most self-defining activities according to their level of hedonic and eudaimonic enjoyment, he found that the hedonic and eudaimonic ratings
showed substantial overlap (50 to 66%).
In a series of studies, Laura King and her colleagues examined the relationship between positive affect (e.g., happiness) and sense of meaningfulness or life purpose. Overall, these studies found that
the experience of positive affect was consistently related to meaningfulness.
Positive psychologists argue that national statistics describing how we are doing as a society provide a misleading view of happiness and health because they
do not measure happiness and positive mental health or functioning directly.
In his classic book The Anatomy of an Illness, Norman Cousins describes what might be called his _ cure for ankylosing spondylists, a painful disease of joints and connecting tissue.
Health researchers have described three coping strategies that people may adopt to reduce stress and its negative effects. Each approach has a different goal or focus. The goal of problem-focused coping is to 1._, emotion-focused coping is to 2._ and pro-active coping is to 3._.
1. reduce or eliminate the source of the stress
2. change or reduce one's response to stress
3. prevent stress from happening in the first place
According to studies by Csikszentmihalyi, the flow experience is characterized by
total absorption, loss of self, and exhilaration.
The relationship between the traits of self-esteem and optimism to physical/emotional health may be based on the connect of these two traits to
According to Bryant and Verhoff, savoring refers to people
attend to, appreciate, and extend positive experiences.
Both physiological and self-report studies suggest that positive and negative affect are best regarded as
two basic dimensions of our emotional experience.
In one of Fredrickson's studies, college students became very nervous after they were told they had one minute to prepare a speech to give in front of their peers. After preparing their speeches, students were assigned to different conditions to watch films with a neutral, positive, or negative emotional content. The findings of this study supports the value of positive emotions
in undoing the effects of negative emotions because of the faster rate of return to baseline heart-rate among students in the positive emotion film group.
In diverse samples and domains of life, Fredrickson and Losado examined the ratio of positive and negative emotional experiences in relation to individual and group functioning. They found evidence that a critical positivity ratio of
2.9 (or above) positive to negative emotions predicted was the dividing line between flourishing and languishing.
According to Bryant and Verhoff, three preconditions must be must be met for a savoring experience to occur. These are
sense of here and now, setting aside self-esteem needs, and a mindful appreciation of the moment.
Stone and his colleagues had adult men keep a daily diary of their moods at work, home, and in leisure activities for 12 weeks. Each man in the study also took a harmless protein antigen pill every day. Results showed that the
more positive moods and events the men experienced the more antibodies to the antigen pill their immune systems produced.
Consistent with Carstenson's socioemotional selective theory, research shows that older married couples and the elderly
have more satisfying marriages and invest more in a smaller circle of established relationships rather than in meeting new people.
Which of the following are examples of the changes resulting from posttraumatic growth (PTG)?
feelings of personal strength, increased spirituality, less materialism, increased closeness to others.
Based on studies of children and youth, Masten has described three general categories of protective factors that contribute to resilient responses: those within the child, within the family, and within the community. Which of the following have been identified as "within the child protective factors"?
positive self-image, optimism, easy-going temperament, and good intellectual and problem solving skills.
Buckner and his colleagues studied resilience among disadvantaged youth (ages 8 to 17) living in poverty. Their sample included Caucasians, African Americans, Puerto Ricans, and other Latinos. Nearly a third (29%) of their sample was classified as resilient. Which of the following parental factors differentiated resilient from non-resilient youths?
parental monitoring of youth activities and whereabouts
What does Ann Masten mean when she describes human resilience as "ordinary magic"?
resilient responses are quite common and stem from normal and everyday capacities and conditions.
Posttraumatic growth seems to depend heavily on
According to the research of Janoff-Bulman, what three assumptions or beliefs are shattered by trauma and loss (i.e., negative effects of trauma)?
personal invulnerability, meaningfulness, and positive view of self.
Posttraumatic growth (PTG) refers to the
the positive life lessons and changes that may result from a traumatic event.
Human resilience refers to
good outcomes despite serious threat or challenge.
Buckner and his colleagues studied resilience among disadvantaged youth (ages 8 to 17) living in poverty. Their sample included Caucasians, African Americans, Puerto Ricans, and other Latinos. Nearly a third (29%) of their sample was classified as resilient. What did these researchers find was the most powerful predictor of resilience among disadvantaged youth?
cognitive and emotional self-regulation abilities
In the dorm room assignment study by Dunn and her colleagues, what was the basis for students' predicted happiness with their dorm assignment and what determined their actual dorm-life satisfaction?
1. Predicted _ 2. Actual _
2. Social relationships
Studies of happiness across the life span, the mid-life crisis, and the empty nest syndrome suggest that
no age or stage of life seems to be happier or unhappier than any other.
Studies of negative affect across the life span consistently show that negative affect (emotion) _ as we get older.
The effects of marriage on individual happiness and well-being, as shown in large national sample surveys, is
considerable stronger than most other demographic variables.
What is paradoxical about gender and happiness?
men and women are equally happy even though women experience more frequent negative emotions and show higher rates of depression.
Kunzman and his colleagues examined age-related differences in two types of positive emotions: pleasant affect and positive involvement. They also examined age differences in two lifestyles: a hedonic lifestyle and a more eudaimonic and growth-related lifestyle. Overall their findings suggest that the basis for positive emotions
shifts from pleasant affect and a hedonic lifestyle when young, to positive involvement and a growth-related lifestyle in older adulthood.
Religion and spirituality have been shown to have
a small but consistently positive relationship to well-being.
Carstensen's socioemotional selectivity theory predicts that older adults and the elderly shift their priorities from the
future to the present.
The study by Schkade and Kahneman found that students living in California and the Midwest
were most affected by winter weather, with Californians showing higher life satisfaction during the winter, but not for the spring, summer, and fall.
The relationship between more education and higher levels of happiness probably results from the fact that
more education leads to more satisfying and financially rewarding jobs.
In a Chicago Tribune survey reported by Csikszentmihalyi, people at various yearly income levels (e.g., $30,000, $100,000) were asked whether more money would make them happier. Survey results showed that
regardless of their current income people believed more money would make them happier.
The "two-minded view" of money and happiness refers to surveys showing that most people seem to believe that
money is not a basis for happiness, but think that more money will make them happier.
The concept of relative deprivation as an explanation for why more money doesn't necessarily bring more happiness suggest that people's satisfaction with their income and material possessions is
based on social comparisons rather than objective life circumstances.
Within-country comparisons of life satisfaction/happiness and per capita income show
moderate positive correlations among poor, but very small correlations among more affluent countries, consistent with the idea of basic need fulfillment
Up until the recent economic downturn, individual income and consumer purchases have risen dramatically over the last 40 years. During this same period, Americans' level of life satisfaction and happiness has 1._ and rates of depression have 2._.
1. not changed
2. increased dramatically
The bottom line of your text's discussion of genetics, personality, and relationships as explanations for the weak money-happiness connection was that
genetic make-up, personality, and relationships are more important and not much affected by the money people make.
Studies of the wealthiest Americans and longitudinal studies examining the effects of increased and decreased income on happiness show that overall,
the amount of money people make is only weakly related to happiness.
Research evaluating the importance of social comparison processes in people
people are not passive social comparison victims, but actively choose who to compare themselves to.
Eudaimonic theories of well-being, such as self-determination theory, generally support a
universalistic view of well-being by positing basic needs shared by all human beings.
Two things are important to keep in mind when we interpret national differences in the income-happiness relationship. These are that
within-country comparisons are heavily influenced by personality differences and between-country comparisons are influenced by co-variations in things like freedom, individual rights, and access to resources.
According to the historical analysis of Solomon and his colleagues (developers of terror management theory), what does gold in ancient Egypt, the Temple of Juno Moneta in Rome, and the imagery on a U.S. dollar bill all have in common? These authors argue that each of these examples show
the connection of money to the transcendence of death.
Goals are defined as
desired states and outcomes that people expend energy trying to achieve.
According to the matching hypothesis, goals that are most likely to increase well-being when pursued and achieved are those that
fit and express a person's needs, values, and self-concept.
Earnest Becker in his classic book The Denial of Death argued that everything from the Egyptian pyramids to modern skyscrapers to cultural heroes who triumph over adversity all communicate the symbolic message that
we don't really die.
Terror management theory states that the evolution of human intelligence came with a price tags. Which is that
all humans are aware that they will eventually die.
In their study of happiness and success in college, Sheldon and Houser-Marko evaluated freshmen students' reasons for attending college according to the extent to which their reasons reflected external, introjected, identified, or intrinsic motivations. What reason/motive type was most related to higher grades, personal goal fulfillment, better social and emotional adjustment, and personal development?
identified and intrinsic - consistent with self-concordance theory
What is the connection of death and materialism as shown in studies employing a mortality salience condition in which people are instructed to think about their own death? Studies of mortality salience show that
anxiety about death increased materialistic expectations and behavior, suggesting that money and possessions may provide a sense of safety and security.
In their classic study of the "dark side of the American dream," Kasser and Ryan found strong evidence for an inverse relationship between financial aspirations and well-being. What was the specific nature of this relationship?
People who rated financial success as more important than intrinsic goals such as self-acceptance and affiliation showed lowered well-being.
According to the research by Van Boven and Gilovich, many of the negative effects of materialism can be reduced if people would
make more experiential purchases that involve new experiences and learning opportunities.
Diener and Fujita examined the relationship between personal resources (e.g.. intelligence, social skills, support) and personal goals, and well-being among college students. These researchers found that higher levels of well-being and happiness were related to
the degree of match or congruence between resources and personal goals.
Walter Mischel's classic studies with children using what came to be called the "marshmallow test" showed that children who were able to _ went on to become more socially and academically competent teenagers.
delay gratification by resisting immediate tempations
Research by Carver & Scheier suggests that important factors determining the well-being effects of goal disengagement (giving up an important life goal) are
differences in people's ability to let go (disengage from a goal) and ability to reengage in new goals.
If your goal is to do something nice for someone, you only have to think of one thing to do. If your goal is to avoid offending people, you have to be continuously on guard for signs of any offense in all your social interactions. This example highlights one reason that avoidance goals are more difficult to achieve. Avoidance goals
require constant monitoring and vigilance that may deplete our self-control resources.
In Wegner's research, the ironic effects of mental control refer to findings that attempts at self-control, such as trying not to think about a white bear,
often increases rather than decreases the occurrence of the unwanted thoughts or desire that we are trying to suppress.
In a study of his distinction between a hot and a cool control system Mischel used the delay of gratification marshmallow test. Which set of instructions described below led to longest delays in gratification? Children who were asked to think about
the marshmallow as a puffy cloud.
According to the self-discrepancy theory, what determines how people feel (e.g., good or disappointed) when they evaluate themselves relative to their own standards?
the magnitude of the discrepancy between their actual, ideal, and ought selves
A study of 200 college students (Wolfe & Johnson) examined the extent to which high school grades, SAT scores, and 32 different personality variables could predict students
high school grades was the top predictor and self-control was the second best predictor of college grades.
Research by Tice and Baumeister examined differences in performance and stress levels among college students who did or not procrastinate in completing term papers and major class projects. Overall they found that procrastination
produces short-term benefits, but longer-term costs.
Research by Baumeister and his colleagues presented people with tasks that require self-control (like eating vegetables instead of available chocolates) have found that on subsequent self-control tasks people
self-control is a limited resource like a muscle that tires with repeated use.
Self-regulation and control have to do with the _ of goal achievement.
As used by psychologists, traits refer to
internal dispositions that influence how we look at the world.
When psychologists (e.g. Baumeister) examined the empirical evidence for the widespread cultural assumption that: a) low self-esteem was a significant cause of individual problems, such as school failure and drug abuse, and that b) raising self-esteem would "cure" these problems because of its many benefits, they found
weak support for either assumption.
Lyubormirsky has investigated the differences between very happy and unhappy people. Her studies show that unhappy people
all of the above
Within positive psychology a trait is considered "positive" because it contributes to or is associated with
happiness, emotional health, physical health, or virtue.
A used by psychologists, temperament refers to
a genetically-determined physiological disposition to respond to the environment in stable and typical manner.
Studies of identical and fraternal twins suggest that about _ of people's typical level of positive/negative affect and happiness is determined by genetics.
The concept of depressive realism is supported by researching showing that mildly depressed people (compared to the non-depressed)
are more accurate in their judgments of themselves and their life, supporting a sadder-but-wiser effect.
Studies of the relationship between dispositional optimism and physical/emotional health find that compared to pessimism, optimism is associated with
less depression, less distress in the face of serious illness, faster illness recovery, and a longer life.
As shown in Watson's research, the strongest predictive component and the most defining feature of happiness within the subjective well-being conception is
One of he ways that optimism "works" is that optimists
use more effective, active, and flexible coping strategies while pessimists use more passive strategies such as denial and withdrawal.
The virtue of transcendence
connects the individual to larger and deeper meanings of life.
Psychologists believe and research suggests that forgiveness may be particularly valuable for
reducing the negative health effects of anger and for repairing relationships.
Which of the following are the six "universal" virtues identified by the Values in Action Project?
wisdom, courage, humanity, justice, temperance, and transcendence.
Research investigating the characteristics that define a wise person have found that wisdom is
defined by knowledge and judgment related to the conduct of a virtuous life.
Overall, what have researchers concluded about the well-being benefits of religion?
Religion shows small but consistently positive well-being benefits.
To measure wisdom, Baltes and his colleagues use trained judge's evaluation of people's responses to various life dilemmas. In one study using the life dilemma measure, Baltes and Kunzman asked whether wise people are happier than the less wise. Results from their study found that
wise people report both less negative and less positive emotional experiences suggesting skill at self-control.
According to Allport, people who use their religion to provide security, comfort, social status, and support have what kind of religious orientation?
Baumeister and Exline argue that one of the most important functions of virtue and morality is to
maintain harmonious relationships with others by controlling selfish needs.
Researchers have found that higher-quality family life, self-esteem, optimism, social support, and enhanced mental health are consistently linked to what type of religious orientation?
Baumeister and Exline argue that the Seven Deadly Sins (e.g., gluttony, greed, lust, anger) result from
self-control failure, suggesting self-control is the "moral muscle" behind virtuous behaviors and therefore the master virtue.
Which adult attachment style is associated with being a supportive partner, more intimate disclosures, more satisfying social life, and a higher level of emotional well-being?
"If a person had all the other qualities you desire, would you still marry this person if you were not in love?" American college students were asked this question in the 1960s and again in the 1990s. When researchers compared answers for the two time periods they found
many students (especially women) said "yes" in the 1960s, but in the 1990s the overwhelming reponse of both men and women was "no."
Longitudinal studies consistently show one potential difficulty with passion and romantic love as the primary basis for marriage, which is that
these positive emotions together with marital satisfaction decline over time.
In Gottman and his colleagues's "love lab" studies, married couples are observed in an apartment where their verbal, nonverbal and physiological responses are carefully recorded. Gottman found that happy/stable couples were distinguished from those headed for divorce by
the ratio of positive to negative behaviors.
Many social observers believe that the increasing emphasis on romantic love and emotional fulfillment in marriage
contributes to divorce because expectations are too high, which leads to disillusionment.
In Sternberg's triangular theory of love, different varieties of love are based on three essential ingredients. These are
intimacy, passion, and commitment.
According to the attachment theory, some of our most basic emotional responses to intimate relationships are shaped by
relationships with our parents.
Relationship researchers comparing friendship and romantic partners have investigated what people mean when they say they "love" someone and when they say they are "in love" with someone. Studies suggest that
"in love" involves feelings of sexual desire and attraction and is used to describe romantic, but not friendship, relationships.
Most relationship researchers would affirm the implications of the Lauer's study of 351 couples married at least 15 years by arguing that enduring and happy marriages are built on
companionate love based on friendship rather than romantic
Which of the following is true concerning the effects of social relationships on well-being? Relationships
predict happiness across different cultures, are as important as smoking and obesity to physical health, and are a major contributor to mental health.
An essential theme within positive psychology, discussed at the beginning of Chapter 12 (section titled Positive Psychology Revisited), is that
health and happiness are more than the absence of illness and unhappiness.
Brown and Ryan make a connection between mindfulness and goal research. These researchers believe that mindfulness may be particularly important for
overriding automatic behaviors, increasing autonomous choices, and regulating goal directed behavior.
Martin Seligman combines the major elements of hedonic and eudaimonic perspectives in describing a three-part analysis of happiness. According to Seligman the three components of a happy life are
a pleasant life, an engaged life, and a meaningful life.
Corey Keyes' "complete model of mental health" describes
a continuum running from mental illness to flourishing.
Mindfulness refers to
an open and receptive, present-centered attention focused on the way things
According to the second author of your text (a practicing psychotherapist), psychotherapy is a form of mindfulness coaching because people in emotional trouble
need help in becoming aware of the feelings and undesirable aspects of their personality that they work so hard to suppress.
In contrast to mindfulness, mindlessness refers to a state of consciousness
governed by rule and routine, with little awareness of what is happening "right now."
What is the essential nature of mindfulness meditation? As described by Kabat-Zinn, mindfulness meditation is
a practical way to see life's problems through a clear mind.
Cognitive therapy developed by Aaron Beck to treat depression may have much in common with the disidentification within meditative practice, because both cognitive therapy and disidentification involve stopping the tendency to
identify with one's thoughts rather than reality.
Recent studies by Brown and Ryan using Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) have
all of the above
Wellness is a philosophy of healthcare that focuses on prevention and individual responsibility.
According to Transactional Analysis, life script refers to an ongoing program first developed in childhood that plays a role in determining behavior later in life.
In each of Batson's studies, when empathy is low, what does the pattern of helping suggest?
Tracking your current spending is a recommended step in the budgeting process.
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