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Cardiac System pathology
Terms in this set (44)
A weakening in the wall of a vessel that produces a sac-like area. There is 50% increase in the normal vessel diameter with weakening of all layers of the arterial or venous wall.
Etiology of an Aneurysm
Can include genetic disposition, trauma or infection.
Common sites of an Aneurysm
Aorta, abdomina aorta, femoral, and popliteal arteries.
Symptoms of an Aneurysm
(Depend on Location)
Intermittent or constant pain
Abnormal heart beat
Serious complication can occur including: MI, stroke, renal failure, and embolization
A transient process that occurs when the coronary arteries are unable to supply the heart with adequate oxygen.
Etiology of Angina
Sudden onset once the myocardial oxygen demand is higher than the supply. Coronary Artery Disease accounts for 90% of all cases.
Four Most Common Types of Angina: 1
Four Most Common Types of Angina: 2
Four Most Common Types of Angina: 3
Four Most Common Types of Angina: 4
Angina that will wake someone up form his or her sleep with the same characteristics as angina from exertion. This may be related to congestive heart failure.
Angina that occurs while at rest secondary to coronary artery disease or spasm. This can be severe and not readily relieved by nitroglycerin.
Angina that usually occurs at a predictable level of exertion, exercise, or stress and responds to rest or nitroglycerin.
Angina that can occur at rest or with exertion and had changed intensity, frequency, and/or duration.
Symptoms of Angina
Pain may radiate
Usually lasts 1-5 minutes
Usually relieved with rest or nitroglycerin
A condition of progressive accumulation of fatty plaques on the interior walls of vessels that ultimately produces stenosis.
Etiology of Atherosclerosis
Process begins in childhood and usually affects medium sized arteries. Overtime plaque that produces stenosis inside the vessel can also block blood flow. May result in heart attack or stroke.
A group of conditions that affect the myocardium itself, impairing the ability for the heart to contract and relax.
Three Types of Cardiomyopathy: 1
Three Types of Cardiomyopathy: 2
Three Types of Cardiomyopathy: 3
Symptoms of Cardiomyopathy
(Depends on type)
Neck vein distension
Possible chest pain
sudden death (hypertrophic)
Congestive Heart Failure
A condition that usually results from coronary artery disease when the heart is unable to maintain and adequate cardiac output. Characterized by abnormal retention of fluid and results in diminished blood flow to the tissue and congestion of the pulmonary and/or systemic circulation.
Symptoms of Congestive Heart Failure
(Depend on Type)
Non productive cough
Weight gain within hours
Increased resting HR
Coronary Artery Disease
The narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries that may produce ischemia and necrosis of the myocardium. Inability for vasodilation and as a result the arteries cannot meet the metabolic demands. Will produce ischemia and eventually necrosis.
Etiology of Coronary Artery Disease
Inheritance, environment, culture, nutrition, and smoking.
Symptoms of Coronary Artery Disease
Appear after significant blockage > 75%
Pain in occluded artery's region
If untreated, MI or sudden death
Causes inflammation of the endothelium that lines the heart and cardiac valves. Most commonly damages the mitral valve, then the aortic, and then the tricupsid valves.
Etiology of Infective Endocarditis
Commonly caused by bacteria that are normally present in the body. Can also occur after an invasive medical or dental procedure. Not easily diagnosed or treated.
Symptoms of Infective Endocarditis
May have sudden onset or by asymptomatic for months
May affect organ systems
Chest pain, CHF, clubbing
Arthralgia, arthritis, acidosis
Myalgia, low back pain
Meningitis, stroke, confusion
Causes irreversible damage to a segment of the heart muscle due to prolonged ischemia.
Etiology of Myocardial Infarction
Narrowing of coronary arteries due to atherosclerotic occlusion, poor coronary perfusion secondary to hemorrhage or occlusion of the major coronary arteries.
Symptoms of Myocardial Infarction
Sudden constant pain and/or pressure
May radiate up neck, down arm
Shortness of breath
Expected Damage with Infarct to Anterior Heart
Left anterior descending artery
High risk of large infarction
Expected Damage with Infarct to Inferior Heart
Right coronary artery
Right ventricle damage
Medium Infarct Possible
Expected Damage with Infarct to Lateral heart and/or superior heart
Least area of muscle affected
Usually the least overall damage
Minor impairment or complications
Refers to an uncommon condition of inflammation to the myocardium itself.
Etiology of Myocarditis
Usually due to infection.
Symptoms of myocarditis
Mild, low-level chest pain
Soreness in the epigastric region
Inflammation of the pericardium (The outer membrane) of the heart. This condition may be acute or chronic and can be painful or asymptomatic.
Etiology of Pericarditis
Often unknown; however, causes such as infection, myocardial infarction, radiation therapy, post cardiac surgery, metabolic disorders, and aortic dissection have been linked to this diagnosis.
Symptoms of Pericarditis
(Varied and based on underlying etiology)
Auscultation reveals pericardial friction rub
Pleuretic chest pain
Diffuse ST segment elevation
Retrosternal chest pain
Cough and hoarseness
Fever, fatigue, and weakness
Rheumatic Heart Disease
The result of damage to the heart secondary to inflammation from rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever can occur from streptococcal group A bacteria, and is classified as an autoimmune disease. Can affect all connective tissues of the heart, joints, and central nervous system and frequently damages cardiac valves.
Symptoms of Rheumatic Heart Disease
Carditis with chest pain
Acute onset polyarthritis
Arthralgias and weakness
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