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greasers -often wore leather bombers high school and college students -wore bombers made of suede, gabardine, or other materialsWhat groups wore bomber jackets during the 50s?flat top pompadour duck tail crew cutWhat were the popular men's hairstyles during the 50s?The MonkeesWho was the first boyband?-invention of Spandex in 1959 -introduction of permanent press fabrics in 1964 -invention of Kevlar in 1965What were the main textile innovations that influenced the fashion of the 1960s?-Civil Rights Movement -anti-war movement -feminist/women's rights movement -environmentalist movement -hippie/anti-establishment movementWhat were the social movements that impacted fashion during the 60s?style tribesGroups of mostly young people who had the same interests and wore the same kinds of clothingpop art op artWhat were the two art movements during the 60s that heavily influenced fashion?Jaqueline Kennedy OnassisWho was THE fashion icon of the 60s?she was trying to show a visual contrast between herself and her husband and Dwight Eisenhower and his wifeWhat political factor influenced the styles that Jackie Kennedy wore?Oleg CassiniWho was Jackie Kennedy's personal designer and stylist?Mary Quant-very important in the Mod movement -thought fashion should be affordable and accessible to the young -started out as a shop owner who stocked clothes from wholesale market, but started designing when she got frustrated with clothes being offered -self-tought, but took evening classes -redirected focus from Paris to London -often credited with popularizing the mini skirt -given her own stamp in 2009 -used a lot of "wet look" materials -credited with introduction of hot pants/short shortsPierre Cardin-most famous for simple but bold designs -known for body exposure, space age design, body stockings, and leggings -helmets -called the "geometric guru" -briefly expelled from Chambre Syndicale in 1959 for launching a RTW collection for Printemps -first couturier to turn to Japan as a high fashion market -licensed products -logo branding on clothingAndré Courrèges-trained under Balenciaga -simple silhouettes -heavy space age influence -mostly white clothing with color accents -known for white go-go boots -like Quant, often credited with the invention of the mini skirt -big impact on younger fashionPaco Rabanne-sold plastic jewelry and buttons to Balenciaga, Dior, and Givenchy -used plastics, metal, aluminum, and other alternative materials for dresses -collection of 12 contemporary dresses called "the Unwearables" -sun gogglesEmanuel Ungaro-worked for Balenciaga and Courrèges -known for femininity, pure silhouettes, flamboyant prints, and attention to detail -refused to show evening dresses at debut show -bright colorsYves Saint Laurent-was training with Dior when he passed away in 1957 -known for innovative designs -Mondrian dresses -influence of pop artpea coat thigh high boots Mondrian dresses smoking/tuxedo jackets start-up of Rive Gauche velvet knickerbockers safari jacket see-through blousesWhat are YSL's signature innovations during the 1960s?Chanel (1960s)-no longer in the forefront of fashion -despised the mini skirt (thought women's knees were too knobby and shouldn't be shown) -still had many faithful clientsEmilio Pucci-known for varied use of color and intricate geometric designs -member of Italian Olympic ski team -stepped into fashion world after designing his own ski pants -politician -uniforms for Braniff AirlinesValentino (1960s)-signature colors of white, black, and red -first attention came after 1962 Florence show -won Neiman Marcus Award 1967Missoni-Italian fashion house -known for colorful knitwear -scandal for having models remove bras underneath sheer blouses -Diana Vreeland advocated for themOleg Cassini-worked in Hollywood costuming -jet setter -was engaged to Grace Kelly -became licensed later in careerNorman Norrell (1960s)-became first American designer to launch his own brand of perfume -mermaid gownsRudi Gernreich-dancer and costume designer -sportswear focus -created a topless bathing suit in 1964Oscar de la Renta-worked under Balenciaga -designed dress for US ambassador's daughter and was featured on Life magazine cover -went to Diana Vreeland for career advice -really interested in creating RTW -won Coty Award in 1967 and 1968 -president of the CFDA in the 1970sbabydoll dress sack dress chemise dressWhat are some of Balenciaga's well-known designs of the 1950s?Jacques Fath-self-taught -predicted the New Look in 1939 -obtained quick success -known for hourglass shapes, low necklines, tiny waists, narrow skirts, or very very full skirts -used visible corsetry -favored asymmetrical necklines and diagonal lines -considered to be the designer of choice for young chic Parisiennes in the 1950s -had large audience appealPierre Balmain-worked with Molyneux and Lucien Lelong -first perfume was named using his phone number -"produced beautiful clothes that you actually wanted to wear" -led fashion for sheath dresses with jackets or stoles -tailored suits -glamorous evening wear (some short) -was able to successfully translate designs to the American market -favored by some of Hollywood's best leading ladies -leopard skinHubert de Givenchy-worked under Fath, Lelong, and Schiaparelli and with Balmain and Dior -similar design philosophy to Balenciaga (they shared ideas) -first collection named "Bettina Graziani" after Paris's top model of the time -life long friends and designer for Audrey HepburnEdith Head-considered the most important Hollywood costume designer -became a fashion authority for many women -"the dress doctor" -won 8 academy awards (the most any woman has won), was nominated for 15 -became famous for mink-lined gown worn by Ginger Rodgers in "Lady in the Dark" (single most expensive costume ever produced in Hollywood) -designed women's uniforms for the Coast Guard -inspiration for Edna Mode from the IncrediblesZelda Wynn Valdes-first African American fashion designer -first African American woman to own a shop on Broadway -asked personally by Hugh Hefner to design first Playboy bunny costume -Joyce Bryant would only perform in pieces from this designerMadame Grès (1950s)-Greek sculptural influence -pleated fluid dresses from silk jerseyNorman Hartnell (1950s)-known for opulent yet elegant designs, lavish embroidery, and intricate details -designed Queen Elizabeth's wedding gown and coronation gown -one of few British designers to be knighted -1950s were the height of his careerCharles James (1950s)-considered each design to be a work of art -reached height of popularity in early 1950s -absolute perfectionist -couldn't stop working on his designs -most famous for Clover Leaf dress -produced fewer than 5,000 garments in his entire career-arched, penciled eyebrows -eye shadow -red lipsWhat were the styles of makeup in the 1950s?corolle/huitChristian Dior's debut line which presented the "new look"-increased textile consumption -major changes in undergarmentsWhat impacts did the popularization of the New Look have on the fashion industry?mary widowwaist cinch or long line brassiere that made the waist appear smallerBalenciaga (1950s)-leading couturier in Spain -perfectionist -did not choose typical models; wanted models that represented his diverse range of clients -limited embellishment -flamenco influences -Spanish renaissance influences -believed clothes should not hamper the body -bracelet sleeves -enjoyed creating shapes