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Terms in this set (158)
Each Officer must make a ____ when responding to emergency calls during the storm.
Use a ____ approach when responding to emergency calls during the storm.
What are considered justified reasons to delay response until those conditions subside?
Flying debris and hail large enough to cause physical damage to personnel
If the decision is made to delay response for safety reasons, what should the Company Officer do?
Enter a status of "Enroute" on the MDC and respond when it is safe to do so
If weather conditions exceed acceptable risk factors while en route, the officer or drive may stop the apparatus and park how?
So the apparatus windshield is facing opposite the wind direction
If an impassable route is encountered, due to debris, what should be done?
Notify dispatch of the closure and take a detour
Apparatus Personnel should check MDC desktops to ensure what links are present and working?
National Weather Service
Only the ____ can authorize calling in off-duty personnel due to an emergency.
Fire Chief or the Fire Chief's Designee
Off duty personal will be notified by who when calling off duty personnel for an emergency?
Official representative of the OKCFD
Notifications will rarely, if ever, be made through ____. If used though, an official representative of the ____ will directly make the request.
Broad statements made by media to respond to a large scale emergency are what?
Never valid and should not be followed
Personnel should not call who to request or inquire about reporting to work?
Dispatch, Administration, their assigned work site, or any on-duty personnel
What task should have been completed during the month of March Annually?
-Pre-Season Preparations Check List
-Fire Department Facilities
-Apparatus Inspection & Familiarization
-Tools & Equipment Inspection
The Training/ Special Ops / EMS / and Safety work section should consider using what months to disseminate info relevant to Tornado's, Flooding, Water Emergencies, and Earthquakes?
What are some examples of monthly station schools?
Safety School: Read and review SOP's
HazMat School: Petroleum products and bio hazards within flood waters
Skills Maintenance: Proper use, limitations, and deployment of water rescue equipment
EMS School: Drowning, Near drowning, Mass Casualty Incidents Protocols
Pre-Season Preparations Check List
Review - OKCFD Natural Disasters Policy, ICS with emphasis on Area Command, ICS 214 Unit Log, Shelter in Place Location and Procedures, Disaster Response Plan Book, Proper PPE for tornado, flooding, water emergencies, and earthquakes.
Fire Department facilities
Company Officer/Station Officer/Work Section Supervisor will:
-Inspect the physical condition of each FD facility to ensure structure is not vulnerable
-Ensure all surface area drains around the exterior of buildings are free from debris to allow for proper drainage.
-Ensure station and mobile generators have been serviced and are in good working condition
-Identify the locations of utility shut-offs
-Wildland gear (FR Indura coveralls, wildland helmet, leather gloves)
-Eye protection/safety glasses
Apparatus Inspection & Familiarization
Air intakes and electrical components that allow the apparatus to operate are located in relatively low positions making them extremely susceptible to high water.
What is a good reference point for operations in high water for apparatus driving?
Depths of water that extend higher than the bottoms of the wheel rim
Who will be issued a "Water Rescue Bag"?
Water Rescue Bag Inventory
5 - Type III Personal Flotation Devices (PFD's)
5 - Lightweight Rescue Helmets
5 - Throw Bag with 70' of Polypropylene Rope
5 - Whistles
5 - Pairs of Trauma Shears
5 - Glow Sticks
District Officer Vehicle Inventory
1 - Trailer Hitch Insert w/ball for portable generator
1 - Pigtail for portable generator
20 - Blank ICS 214 Forms
Who should fill out an ICS 214 Form?
Every person in the Emergency Operations Center, or Field Unit Team, with a responsibility for the Disaster Response.
ICS 214 should be used by who?
Team Leader to record all pertinent operational milestones and decisions that are made
How is the Unit log laid out?
Chronologically, free-form record, and can be written in narrative form
At the end of the operational period, the Unit Log is passed to who?
In-coming Assignment Leader.
At the end of the incident, all Unit Logs become part of what?
What is included on the Unit Log?
1. Incident Name - Event is named when it occurs. Ask IC or EM
2. Operational Period
4. ICS Position
5. Home Agency: OKCFD
6. Resources Assigned - apparatus and other resources assigned to the person filling out the form
7. Activity Log - all major milestones
8. Prepared by: Name and signature of author
Who has the latitude to make adjustments to fire dispatch - natural disaster operations?
Deputy Chief of Support or his designee (Dispatch Supervisors)
Fire Dispatch Emergency Mode is the term used to describe the status during what?
When will dispatchers announce a moderate to high risk for severe weather as determined by NWS?
Morning station audio test and again during apparatus radio test
From ____ hrs. until ____ hrs., dispatchers will remain aware of any flooding, freezing of high wind speeds that may adversely affect response during late night/early morning calls.
2200 until 0700
When dispatch dispatches companies during adverse conditions, they will what?
Add caution statement during the announcement
During the storm, when deemed necessary by the Deputy Chief of Support Services or his designee, dispatchers will use what?
Station audio and radio announcements to advice that severe weather has hit a portion of the city limits
They will also make any recommendation deemed necessary to keep personnel out of harms way
At the stations, who will carry around a handheld radio to monitor any radio traffic that may cause for advising station personnel of city wide severe weather incidents?
When volume call dictates, who may choose to operate in Emergency Dispatch Mode?
This will prompt Operations personnel that Fire Dispatch is currently receiving a large volume of calls and dispatch operations may vary.
Company officers who determine it is not safe to respond immediately, do not need to do what?
make an announcement over the radio, just hit enroute
Under "normal dispatch operations" ____ Fire Dispatcher is assigned as the call taker while the other Dispatcher is assigned as the ____.
Radio Operator or Dispatcher
Under extremely high communication situations, dispatch may not necessarily relocate companies to fill in for large structure fires, they will keep companies where?
As close to their station as possible
If CAD/MDC/AVL system is affected by severe weather, dispatch may use one of the following options to dispatch and track FD units:
1. Use a manual dry erase map to track FD
2. Instruct Dispatcher working FIRE ALERT and dispatching companies to utilize manual mapping and status tracking and consider overriding CAD recommendations. This situation will favor more of a "First In" Fire Station concept
3. Instruct Fire Companies to utilize MDC's and also use voice communications to supplement the MDC's and CAD
4. Fire IT personnel will respond to Fire Dispatch to monitor the CAD/MDC/AVL system and also to assist with manual tracking of Fire Companies to supplement CAD
What channels will dispatch announce that we are now in "Fire Dispatch Emergency Mode"?
Fire Ops and Fire Alert Talk
Who may respond to Dispatch to provide general oversight and maintain Region-wide situational awareness?
District/Battalion Chief of Support Services
When Dispatch is in Emergency Mode, Operations personnel should consider what?
1. Maintain radio discipline
2. Limit radio traffic to only necessary communications
3. Be very brief when companies advice Dispatch concerning incident disposition
4. Non-dispatched companies should refrain from taking rides for other dispatched companies
5. Non-dispatched companies should refrain from self-dispatching to incidents that already have companies assigned
6. If you are dispatched go, if not do not go
7. Do not announce on the radio that you are going out of service
8. If one company is having a conversation with another, a third company should not interfere with their comments, until the original conversation is finished.
When is the only exception to non-dispatched companies refraining from taking rides for other dispatched companies?
A company has become available and is walking back to the apparatus
When in Emergency Mode, what will not be monitored?
Tactical Channel talk groups
Structure fires or calls requiring a multiple company response will be dispatched on what?
Fire Alert Talk group and assigned a Tac Channel
If the IC needs something from dispatch, they will need to switch to what to make their request?
Fire Ops Talk
Fire Dispatch Emergency Mode Office Configurations:
Dispatches all incidents
Monitors Fire Ops and track company status change
Supervisor will oversee all ops and maintain situational awareness
Dispatches all incidents, monitors Fire Ops and tracks company changes
Supervisor will oversee all operations and maintain situational awareness
Dispatches all incidents on Fire Alert, monitors Fire Ops, and tracks company changes
When OKCFD apparatus encounters a stranded motorist during inclement weather, what should be done?
Reasonable efforts to assist shall be made up to and including requesting OCPD, OHP, County Sheriff, and/or CSL
Considerations to assist the Company Officer in making decision on helping stranded motorist:
Time of Day
Number of Occupants
If the decision is made to relocate the stranded motorist, where should they be taken?
An area of refuge
Area of refuge
Closest, safest location that provides sufficient protection from danger
Flagging of Vehicles
Once the OCFD has checked a stranded vehicle and determined it is empty, a single piece of yellow surveyor's tape will be applied to the vehicle
Where should flagging be attached to for vehicles?
1st choice - Radio Antenna
2nd choice - Side view mirror on the road side
What should be written on the flagging for vehicles tape?
Company ID, Date and time
If decision is made to leave motorist in place, will you flag the vehicle?
NO, only flag empty vehicles
If motorist elects to stay with vehicle to await other assistance what can be done?
A piece of yellow flagging can be left with the vehicle operator so that they can attach it once they leave
If no contact is made with a person and it is simply an abandoned vehicle, a ____ is not required.
What is the purpose of the 3-Tape marking System?
To allow crews to systematically, yet simply mark areas and/or structures as "searched"
All OKCFD response apparatus will be issued at least how many rolls of one inch yellow surveyors tape?
How does the 3-Tape Marking System work:
1. Tape will be tied around a highly visible object located at the property/area that has been searched (mailbox, light post, or stake driven in the ground)
2. Every time the property/area has been searched an additional piece of tape will be placed at the same location as the first piece until 3 searches have been completed or until all occupants have been accounted for
3. Each piece of tape will be marked with black marker indicating
4. Agency, Company ID, Time/Date that conducted the particular search
5. If property owner/occupant accounts for all persons during any of searches, put 3 pieces of tape at the location
6. note the name of the occupant claiming all persons are accounted for at the corresponding addresses on the ICS 214 Form
What does 1 piece, 2 pieces, and 3 pieces of tape signify?
1 - Hasty Search (Triage Mentality)
2 - Primary Search
3 - Secondary Search
4 phases of Search and Rescue
Phase 1 - Recon/Windshield Survey
Phase 2 - Hasty Search
Phase 3 - Primary Search
Phase 4 - Secondary Search
Recon or Windshield Survey
Is a "no search" evaluation of the incident area
A very fast paced search to locate and remove lightly trapped victims or victims in need or extrication. Common practice - "Look in, around, call out and move on"
Recommended tools for hasty search
1. Flashlight for each person
2. Portable Radio for each person
3. 8-inch adjustable wrench
4. Gas Plug Wrench and Gas plugs
5. Surveyor's Tape
6. Clip Board with ICS 214 and Permanent Marker or Sharpie
7. Two prying tools - Pry bar and Halligan bar
When victims are located what should you do?
1. Remove the lightly trapped victims from debris
2. Treat life threatening injuries
3. Relocated the injured to the closest EMS Collection Area for assessment
4. If the victim is uninjured or has only minor injuries, have them shelter in place
5. Document Shelter in Place on ICS 214
6. This includes uninjured persons trapped in storm shelters
7. Direct walking wounded to closest EMS Collection Site
8. Notify your Supervisor if Technical Rescue is needed.
9. Natural Gas meters and residential propane tanks should be shut off if - damage is observed that could result in gas leak
10. Residential Water Meters should be turned off if - water is threatening victims/potential victims trapped below grade
DO NOT attempt to plug what type of gas lines?
The minimum level of PPE during the Hasty Search, with exception of Flood and Water Emergencies is what?
1. OCFD FR Indura Wildland or USAR Coveralls
3. Leather gloves
4. Nomex hoods
5. ANSI Z-41 rated footwear
Strongly recommended to wear structural firefighting boots to prevent penetration
What should be used to segment search areas and will eliminate gaps in coverage?
Breakup areas for search markings by using what as initial area marker?
If nothing is standing (no mailbox etc) create a what?
2' x 4' debris pile next to the drive way and mark pile with one piece of yellow search tape
Hasty Search - If the debris field is known to be void of victims, through face to face communication with occupants, make the site with what?
3 sections of search tape
Is a quick more methodical search of structures likely to contain survivors. These searches are done around and in every structure in the assigned area of operations when looking for victims.
If a dead victim is found on primary search what should be done?
Document in detail the location of the victim on both the ICS 214 and your search map to facilitate removal during Secondary Search
Considerations for Primary Search
1. Quick scan of surface debris in and around structures and selected voids
2. Size and make up of a search team is mission specific, incident drive and flexible. Combo of Technical and Non technical rescue
3. Detection resources may include Physical, Canine, and Technical
4. If live victims are located request additional resources for confined space rescue or structural collapse rescue
5. If victims are heavily trapped and will will require technical rescue to properly extricate. Officers will inform Direct Supervisors immediately as to # of victims.
What dogs are not a good source for disaster detection?
Canines provided by Police or Civilian entities NOT associated with OKCFD
Like the fire ground, a secondary search is a slow methodical, systematic search and the last search before complete debris removal
Secondary Search characteristics
1. Forced entry of structures with incomplete search markings may need to occur in order to accomplish this objective but will only be done with AHJ (OCPD presence is needed)
2. Involve extensive debris removal of building material, civilian contractors
3. Divided into 2 levels
4. Deceased victims are removed during this phase
5. Apply 3rd piece of tape
Two levels of secondary search
-Systematic search of every room in every structure in assigned area of operation
-Location detection resources canine or tech search, cadaver canines
-Included items in low coverage plus the following: De-layering and removal of collapse debris to ensure thoroughness
Large scale events will require what?
Unified Command Structure or Unified Area Command Structure
Initially, who will be the main partnering agencies for unified command?
Fire, Police, EMSA, Public Works
First arriving Company Officer to arrive on scene of the disaster area shall:
1. Announce their arrival and location
2. Announce if a Windshield survey is possible, and if so, that they are beginning one
-Should attempt to give Command an idea of the scope and geographical area of the storm damage in that area
First company officer should determine EMS collection sites, which could be located where?
nearby intersections or parking lots that are accessible to EMS transport units and can safely be used to load patients
If victims are found during a Windshield Survey, what should be done?
Company should initiate care and notify Command to assign another company to complete the survey
First District Officer on scene will do what?
1. If Area Command has been established
2. If Area Command has not been established
-Establish command by geographic zone
What should be used for Command Post for Area command?
Fix facility - nearest fire station, church, school
If search and rescue is estimated to be longer than ____ hours, request through Multi-Agency Coordination Center, ____ to respond.
Who will prioritize the most heavily damaged area and high priority sites?
What is the overall goal of this type of incident?
To perform search and rescue operations, fire Operations, Haz-Mat emergency mitigation, and to support EMS.
In large damaged areas, buildings become intermingled with other buildings, use what to distinguish between the two?
Tornado that produced the fastest wind speed recorded on earth?
May 3, 1999 EF5, 318 MPH
Tornado that claimed 24 lives?
May 30, 2013 EF5
Tornado that damaged 2.6 miles wide?
May 31, 2013 EF5
_____ has ranked ____ as Oklahoma's number one critical Priority Risk due to their high probability.
Oklahoma Office of Emergency Management
How many tornado's happen a year?
Tornadoes primarily occur between what hours?
3:00 PM and 9:00 PM
What direction do tornados mostly move?
SW to NE
What is not a reliable predictor of a tornado?
Hail, or any particular pattern of rain, lightning or calmness
In the US, the month with the most tornados is what?
Followed by June, April, July
Major tornado outbreaks have occurred in every what?
Month of the year
The Enhance F scale classifies tornados how?
EF0 - EF5 across 28 different types of damage indicators (based on damage to the buildings and other structures types, as well as trees)
A tornado is considered significant if it was rated what?
EF2 or greater
Minor damage, shingles blown off or parts of a roof peeled off, damage to gutters/siding, branches broken off trees, shallow rooted trees toppled
Moderate damage; more significant roof damage, windows broken, exterior doors damaged or lost, mobile homes overturned or badly damaged
Considerable damage; roofs torn off well constructed homes, homes shifted off their foundation, mobile homes completely destroyed, large trees snapped or uprooted, cars can be tossed
Severe damage; entire stories of well constructed homes destroyed, significant damage done to large buildings, homes with weak foundations can be blown away, trees begin to lose their bark
Extreme damage; well constructed homes are leveled, cars are thrown significant distances, top story exterior walls of masonry buildings would likely collapse
Massive/incredible damage; well constructed homes are swept away, steel-reinforced concrete structures are critically damaged, high-rise buildings sustain severe structural damage, trees are usually completely debarked stripped of branches or snapped
Conditions are conducive to the development of tornados in and close to the watch area
A tornado has been sighted by spotters or indicated on radar and is occurring or imminent in the warning area
Enhanced wording of tornado warning used by the NWS in the US during significant tornado occurrences in highly populated areas. Significant widespread damage is expected
PDS (Particularly Dangerous Situation) Tornado Watch
are issued when the forecaster has high confidence that multiple strong (F2 or F3) or violent tornados (F4 or F5) will occur within the watch area.
PDS Tornado Watches comprise only of ____ issued.
Outdoor Warning System primary point of activation?
Alternate or backup activation for OWS?
OKC Office of Emergency Management provides backup at the OKC Multiagency Coordination Center - they may activate when 911 Dispatchers are unable to activate it
OKC OWS is activated when?
-National Weather Service issues a Tornado Warning that includes portions of the City
-Public Safety personnel in the field reports a tornado
-Credible evidence of tornado threatening or occurring in OKC
-Directed by the OKC Emergency manager or his designee
OKC uses what kind of approach to activate the OWS?
OWS is divided into how many sectors?
Criteria for selecting what sector of OKC OWS to activate is based on what?
-Sector that NWS Storm Based Warning Polygon covers in whole or in part
-Current location of the storm/tornado in relation to the City and its OWS sectors
-Direction of travel and speed of the storm in relation to the city
-Location of known planned events in relation to the storm movement
-Timing of the storm in relation to the City and its OWS sector
-Recommendation from the OKC Office of Emergency Management
Does the City assumes liability for any failure to warn and/or any failure of any outdoor warning sirens?
911 may activate the OKC OWS ____ during an event as new or additional warnings or threats are identified or move into or across the City.
more than once
When activated, the OKC OWS sounds for how long?
When the OWS is activated, the public should do what?
Take shelter or seek more information
What else can the OWS be used for?
When the City of OKC deems, for other hazardous conditions or threats that pose an immediate and significant threat to life safety.
Examples - potential dam breaches, wildland fires, hazardous material incidents, or enemy attack
When the OWS is activated for other hazardous conditions and threat, the OKC Public Information and Marketing should do what?
immediately follow up with additional emergency public info to the community regarding the hazard or threat and the appropriate protective measures to be taken by the public
What is the primary method of notification of the OWS?
Through the use of notification emails that are automatically sent to designated recipients
What is the secondary method of notification of the OWS?
Entry into the NWSChat by on duty OKC OEM personnel.
OWS is tested when?
Weekly, Saturday at noon
The OWS test may be canceled for what?
-NWS has issued a Severe Thunderstorm/Tornado Watch or Warning for Central Oklahoma
-Imminent threat of severe weather
-Freezing temperature below 32
-Requests to not sound the system because of large outdoor special events, sporting events or ceremonies
Who is responsible for conducting the silent test of the OWS?
Consider operations "Before the Storm" as what?
As the day of the predicted Severe Weather Event
Station Personnel shall ensure the following check list is completed before the storm.
-Ensure Disaster Response Plan Book is on the Apparatus
-Maintain fuel tanks at no less than 3/4 full
-Ensure all fuel cans are full
-Place wildland gear ensemble on apparatus
-Place OCFD water bags on apparatus
FEMA, NIST, and NWS have done extensive research in regards to what?
Sheltering in place vs. being mobile during a tornado.
Research indicates survival rates increase up to ____ when shelter or refuge is sought inside a structure
When selecting a severe storm refuge location, keep in mind the following:
-Most interior portion of the structure
-Smaller rooms are preferable
-Use mattresses for cover
-Full PPE should be considered
-Stay inside until storm has passed
Unless otherwise ordered by a _____, crews should not leave the building to drive to an are they feel may be out of the tornados path.
The Policy of the City of OKC is that the city does not have or recognize any OKC building as a _____.
When can the public shelter in place at the fire station?
If time does not permit
Responding during tornado events:
-Notify dispatch of current location
-If there is a sturdy structure available, go inside
-If no sturdy structure, then drive the apparatus out of the path if possible
-If time permits, park apparatus facing the opposite direction of the oncoming storm/wind direction
-Do not get out of vehicle
When tornados are considered imminent, a _____ will initially set up "Area Command" at the _____ until the ____ or designee is able to take charge or until it is determined the damage does not warrant this large of an ICS organization.
District Officer (601 if available)
Deputy Chief of Operations
The potential of an earthquake occurring within OKC that would cause widespread structural collapse is what?
Isolated structural damage is more likely
Earthquakes - The most significant factor of damaged caused is what?
Magnitude of the earthquake in relation to the distance from the epicenter of the quake.
Smaller earthquakes that follow the main shock and can cause further damage to weakened buildings. Can occur in the first hours, days, weeks, or even months after the quake
Sudden, rapid shaking of the ground caused by breaking and shifting of rock beneath the Earth's surface.
What buildings are most at risk to earthquakes?
Foundations resting on unconsolidated landfill, old waterways, or other unstable soil
The place on the earth's surface directly above the point on the fault where the earthquake ruptures began
Fracture across which displacement has occurred during an earthquake. The slippage may range from less than an inch to more than 10 yards
Amount of energy released, computed from the amplitude of the seismic waves
7.0 - Extremely strong earthquake
Each whole number on the Richter scale represents an increase in how much energy released?
30 times more energy
Vibrations that travel outward from the earthquake fault at speeds of several miles per second
____ during an earthquake is seldom the direct cause of death or injury.
Most earthquake injuries result from what?
-Falling objects as a result of the ground shaking
-People trying to move more than a few feet during the shaking
Hazards created by earthquakes?
-Structurally compromised buildings and bridges
-Hazardous dust and fumes inside structures
-Product release from damaged pipelines
1. Pick safe places
sturdy table or desk
2. Practice drop, cover, and hold on in each safe place
During an Earthquake
1. If indoors
-DROP to the ground, take COVER by getting under a sturdy table or other piece of furniture; and HOLD ON until the shaking stops
-may lose electricity or sprinkler systems may activate
-if no table or desk, use arms to cover face and head and crouch in an inside corner of the building
2. If in bed
-Stay in bed when the earthquake strikes, use pillow to protect head
3. If Outdoors
-Stay there until the shaking stops
-Greatest danger exists outside buildings, at exists and alongside exterior walls
4. If in a moving vehicle
-Stop as quickly as possible and stay inside
5. If trapped under debris
-Do not light match
-Do not move or kick up dust
-Cover mouth with clothing
-Use a whistle
-Shout only as last resort
Operations After an Earthquake
1. Facility and Apparatus Damage Assessment
-Email District Officer of inspection results
2. Responding to Incident after a significant earthquake
-avoid roads, bridges or ramps that might have been damaged
-Report any damages
-If gas or water leaks are suspected, shut off at meter
-Open windows to allow natural gas to exit
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