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Describe the role of the cerebrum.
It is the location of conscious thought processes and the origin of all complex intellectual functions.
Where are regions of gray matter located in the cerebrum?
The cerebral cortex and the cerebral nucleus
What is gray matter?
the cell bodies and dendrites of the neurons that compose it.
What separates the two cerebral hemispheres?
the longitudinal fissure
What connects the cerebral hemispheres?
Tracts, which are bundles of axons, that form white matter regions and connect the cerebral hemispheres. This allows for communication between the two hemispheres.
What is the largest tract between the cerebral hemispheres?
The corpus callosum - it is the main method of communication between the hemispheres
3 points to keep in mind when examining the cerebrum?
1. It is difficult to assign a precise function to a specific region of the cerebral cortex
2. Both hemispheres receive their sensory information from, and project motor commands to, the opposite side of the body
3. Both hemispheres have functional differences, cerebral lateralization.
What are the 5 lobes found in each cerebral hemisphere?
The frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital lobes, and the insula
What is the boundary between the frontal and parietal lobe?
What is the boundary between the frontal and temporal lobe?
What is the precentral gyrus?
The mass of nervous tissue immediately anterior to the central sulcus
Describe the general functions of the frontal lobe.
Voluntary motor functions: speech, concentration, verbal communication, decision making, planning, and personality.
What separates the parietal and occipital lobe?
What separates the parietal and temporal lobes?
What is the postcentral gyrus?
a mass of nervous tissue immediately posterior to the central sulcus
Describe the general function of the parietal lobe?
touch and proprioception
Describe the general function of the temporal lobe?
hearing and smell
Describe the general function of the insula?
Describe the general functions of the occipital lobe?
Describe the general function so the frontal lobe?
What are higher-order brain functions?
Learning, memory, and reasoning
What are (2) ways that the brain develops during childhood?
1) the number of cortical neurons continue to increase in the first year
2) myelination of many CNS axons continues in the first 2 years
How does brain development impact the ability for higher-order brain function?
A person's ability to carry out higher order brain functions is a direct result of the level of nervous system maturation.
What does an EEG measure?
Measures electrical activity generated by the brain
What is plotted during an EEG?
the 4 types of brain waves
What clinical conditions are commonly evaluated with an EEG?
- coma or persistent vegetative state
- evaluate a seizure or epilepsy
- investigate sleep disorders and lesions
What is sleep?
natural, temporary absence of consciousness from which a person can be aroused by normal stimulation
What happens during REM sleep?
rapid eye movement
- memorable dreams
- consolidating and organizing memories
- accounts for appx 25% sleep
What happens during non-REM sleep?
- body repair
- 75% of sleep
Lack of sleep can lead to
depression, impaired memory, and decreased immune function
Notice that the length of REM sleep increases as we cycle through sleep cycles. What would happen to the amount of REM sleep if a person slept for 2, four hour intervals with a long break in between compared to sleeping for 8 hours without interruption?
The person who slept for 8 hours straight would get more REM sleep.
What forms the bony protection of the spinal cord?
the vertebral column
What is the name of the opening in a vertebra where the spinal cord is located? What is the term for the passageway created by all the openings collectively?
The openings are called vertebral foramina and they collectively form the vertebral canal which houses the cauda equina and the spinal cord.
What is an intervertebral foramen? What passes through this opening?
It is a lateral opening between two adjacent stacked vertebrae. Spinal nerves extend through its intervertebral foramen.
What are the 3 spinal cord meninges?
Meninges are connective tissue membranes that protect and encapsulate the spinal cord within the vertebral canal.
What are denticulate ligaments?
numerous paired, triangular extensions present along that spinal cord. They suspend and anchor the spinal cord laterally to the arachnoid and dura mater.
What is the filum terminale?
thin strand of pia mater that helps anchor the conus medullaris to the coccyx bone
How is the dura mater surrounding the spinal cord different than that surrounding the brain?
The dura mater surrounding the brain is composed of 2 layers of connective tissue while the dura mater surrounding the spinal cord only has one.
What is found in the epidural space?
adipose and areolar connective tissue, as well as blood vessels
What is a lumbar puncture?
removal of CSF from the subarachnoid space to be analyzed
In a lumbar puncture, why is the needle typically inserted in the lower lumbar region instead of the cervical or thoracic regions?
because the adult spinal cord ends at the level of L1 vertebra.
What are the two indentations on the surface of the spinal cord?
The posterior median sulcus and the anterior median fissure.
What is the basic shape and location of gray matter in the spinal cord?
Gray matter is centrally located in the spinal cord and resembles a latter H or a butterfly.
What are the 3 sections of white matter in the spinal cord?
Posterior funiculus, lateral funiculus, anterior funiculus
What are the 4 sections of gray matter in the spinal cord?
posterior horn, lateral horn, anterior horn, gray commissure
give 2 examples of somatic sensory receptors in the spinal cord
tactile receptors, proprioceptors
give 2 examples of visceral sensory receptors in the spinal cord
baroceptors and chemoceptors
give 3 examples of autonomic (visceral) effectors in the spinal cord
cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, glands
give an example of a somatic effect in the spinal cord
What is the gray matter in the center of the spinal cord that connects the left and right sides?
the gray commissure
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