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Chem 1 Study Guide
Terms in this set (69)
If matter is uniform throughout and cannot be separated into other substances by physical processes, but can be decomposed into other substances by chemical processes, it is called a(n) ________
Which one of the following is an intensive property?
What is the physical state in which matter has a specific volume but does not have a specific shape?
Of the following, only ________ is a chemical reaction.
tarnishing of silver
Accuracy refers to ________.
how close a measured number is to the true value
The SI unit for mass is ________.
A small amount of salt dissolved in water is an example of a ________.
All atoms of a given element have the same ________.
number of protons
Consider the following selected postulates of Dalton's atomic theory:
(i) Each element is composed of extremely small particles called atoms.
(ii) Atoms are indivisible.
(iii) Atoms of a given element are identical.
(iv) Atoms of different elements are different and have different properties.
Which of the postulates is(are) no longer considered valid?
(ii) and (iii)
There are ________ electrons, ________ protons, and ________ neutrons in an atom of 132Xe.
54, 54, 78
Which compounds do not have the same empirical formula?
The charge on an electron was determined in the ________.
Millikan oil drop experiment
Elements exhibit similar physical and chemical properties.
in the same group of the periodic table
Cathode rays are deflected away from a negatively charged plate because ________.
they are negatively charged particles
An element in the upper right corner of the periodic table ________.
is definitely a nonmetal
The nucleus of an atom does not contain ________.
In the periodic table, the elements are arranged in ________.
order of increasing atomic number
Of the choices below, which one is not an ionic compound?
Which pair of elements is most apt to form a molecular compound with each other?
The suffix -ide is used primarily ________.
for monatomic anion names
The energy of a photon of light is ________ proportional to its frequency and ________ proportional to its wavelength.
A spectrum containing only ________ wavelengths is called a line spectrum.
The photoelectric effect is ________.
the ejection of electrons by a metal when struck with light of sufficient energy
In the Bohr model of the atom, ________
electron energies are quantized
According to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, it is impossible to know precisely both the position and the ________ of an electron.
The ________ quantum number defines the shape of an orbital.
In a px orbital, the subscript x denotes the ________.
axis along which the orbital is aligned
-orbitals are spherically symmetrical.
There are ________ unpaired electrons in a ground state fluorine atom.
The ________ subshell contains only one orbital.
A 4pz orbital in a many-electron atom is degenerate with ________.
No two electrons within the same orbital can have the same set of quantum numbers. This statement describes ________.
Pauli Exclusion Principle
The effective nuclear charge of an atom is primarily affected by ________.
Which of the following correctly represents the first ionization of oxygen?
O (g) → O+ (g) + e-
Atomic radius generally increases as we move ________.
down a group and from right to left across a period
have the lowest first ionization energies of the groups listed.
All of the following are properties of metals except ____________.
metal oxides are acidic
A neutralization reaction between an acid and a metal hydroxide produces ________.
water and a salt
In which species does bromine have an oxidation number of zero?
Which one of the following is a weak acid?
Oxidation is the ________ and reduction is the ________.
loss of electrons, gain of electrons
A weak electrolyte exists predominantly as ________ in solution.
Which of the following is insoluble in water at 25 °C?
Of the species below, only ________ is not an electrolyte.
Which one of the following is a correct expression for molarity?
mol solute/L solution
Which of the following bonds would be considered non-polar covalent?
Which of the following would have to lose three electrons in order to achieve a noble gas electron configuration?
Si Mg Al Cl P
The only noble gas without eight valence electrons is ________.
The type of compound that is most likely to contain a covalent bond is ________.
one that is composed of only nonmetals
Which of the following does not have eight valence electrons?
The ability of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons is best quantified by the ________.
The point in a titration at which the indicator changes is called the ________.
Of the following, ________ cannot accommodate more than an octet of electrons.
The electron-domain geometry and the molecular geometry of a molecule of the general formula ABn will always be the same if ________.
there are no lone pairs on the central atom
The basis of the VSEPR model of molecular bonding is ________.
electron domains in the valence shell of an atom will arrange themselves so as to minimize repulsions
What is the molecular shape of H2O?
An electron domain consists of ________.
a) a nonbonding pair of electrons
b) a single bond
c) a multiple bond
a, b, and c
As the number of covalent bonds between two atoms increases, the distance between the atoms ________ and the strength of the bond between them ________.
The units of specific heat are ________.
J/g-K or J/g-°C
4Al (s) + 3O2 (g) → 2 Al2O3 (s) ΔH° = -3351 kJ
is ________, and therefore heat is ________ by the reaction.
A ________ ΔH corresponds to an ________ process.
When a system ________, ΔE is always negative.
gives off heat and has work done on it
Of the following, which one is a state function?
The internal energy can be increased by ________.
(a) transferring heat from the surroundings to the system
(b) transferring heat from the system to the surroundings
(c) doing work on the system
a and c
All of the following statements are true except ________.
Enthalpy is an intensive property.
The entropy of the universe is ________.
A reversible process is one that ________.
can be reversed with no net change in either system or surroundings
A reaction that is spontaneous as written ________.
will proceed without outside intervention
Which one of the following processes produces a decrease of the entropy of the system?
dissolving oxygen in water
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