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Chp. 16 Proteins~ YOU GOT THIS VICKY JAY! <3
Terms in this set (10)
Red blood cells contain the protein __________________ (which is abbreviated to?) which binds ___________ and ______________ it to tissues.
Individuals with sickle-cell anemia have a slight difference in the _______________ structure of their hemoglobin which causes their red blood cells to become ______________ in ____________-_______________ tissues. These red blood cells assume a ____________ shape, and tend to ________________, clogging delicate __________ _____________ and restricting ___________ ___________. Ultimately, this leads to _________ damage, causes severe pain, and can damage _____________ _____________.
Sickled red blood cells also have a shorter life span than normal red blood cells: ____ days instead of 120 days. Therefore, people with sickle-cell anemia have a lower red blood cell count: they are __________.
Hemoglobin, like all proteins, is a biological _____________ in which the monomer units are _________ ___________. Some proteins, like hemoglobin, are composed of more than one ___________ of amino acids.
***Don't need to read, just a note for me: Hemoglobin is a protein with two identical -chains, each containing 141 amino acids, and two identical -chains, each containing 146 amino acids.
The only difference between the amino acid sequence in normal hemoglobin and sickle-cell hemoglobin is?
The hemoglobin of a person with sickle-cell anemia has the amino acid (what?), where normally the amino acid (what?) appears.
hemoglobin; Hb; oxygen; transports
chemical; misshapen; oxygen-depleted; crescent; aggregate; blood vessels; blood flow; tissue; internal organs
polymer; amino acids; polymer
one amino acid in the b-chains
valine; glutamic acid
Enzymes are the ___________ for almost all the reactions of ____________.
Receptors _________ to specific molecules and then produce a ____________ within the cell.
Structural proteins provide _____________ ____________ to tissues such as skin, muscle, blood vessels, and tendons.
Immunoglobulins are the _________________ that defend the body against infectious agents.
Transport proteins, such as ___________ and ____________, which deliver ____________ to cells.
Dietary proteins __________ the body with the _________ _________ necessary to build ____________-containing __________________.
Motor proteins ____________ molecules and ions ___________ (where) the cell, as well as within _____________ such as ___________ ____________.
hemoglobin; myoglobin; oxygen
supply; amino acids; nitrogen; biomolecules
transport; within; tissues; muscle fibers
All proteins are constructed from the same ______ a-amino acids.
An amino acid contains both an __________ (what formula) and a _____________ acid ________________ group (what formula).
Both functional groups have a __________ ________ to the same ______________ carbon, known as the?
The a-carbon also has a bond to what other two components?
amine (NH2); carboxylic; functional (-COOH)
covalent bond; tetrahedral; a-carbon
-H and -R
Amines are weak _________ and carboxylic acids are weak _______. Therefore, in aqueous solution these functional groups exist in either their neutral or ionized forms, which depends on the (what?) of the solution.
At physiological pH (which is?) the amine and the carboxylic acid are both in their ___________ forms: the amine is in its conjugate ______ form (formula?) and the carboxylic acid is in its conjugate ______ form (formula?)
The positive charge on the amine and the negative charge on the carboxylate ion results in a ___ _________ charge on the amino acid (unless the ____ group has a functional group with a charge).
At low pH what happens? At high pH what happens?
bases; acids; pH
7.4; ionized; acid (NH3+); base (COO-)
net zero; R
At low pH (LOWCP), the carboxylate ion gains a proton to become carboxylate acid, and the amino acid gets a positive charge
At a high pH (HIGHAN), the conjugate acid of the amine loses a proton, and the amino acid gets a negative charge
In addition to bonds to an amine and a carboxylic acid, the a-carbon has a bond to a _________________ and to a side chain (an ___ group).
Serine, threonine, and tyrosine contain a __________ (formula) group.
Asparagine and glutamine contain an ___________ group (formula) and cysteine contains a _________ (which is?) as part of their side chains.
amide (COHN2); thiol (SH)
________________ of the 20 natural amino acids are chiral because the -carbon is a ____________ __________. Recall that a chirality center is a __________________ carbon with bonds to ______(#) (same/different) groups or atoms (chapter 14). The four atoms or groups with a bond to the a-carbon in an amino acid are the ________, the ___________ _______, the side chain (___ group), and the ______________ atom.
____________ is achiral because it has two ________________ on the a-carbon, and therefore, it does not have a chirality center.
19; chirality center; tetrahedral; 4; different; amine, carboxylic acid; R; hydrogen
Since a Lewis structure is a two-dimensional representation of a molecule, it cannot be used to depict the configuration of a ____________ ___________. Instead, we write skeletal line structures using the ___________ and __________ notation at the chirality center.
Recall that exchanging the atom/group on the wedge and the dash produces the ____________ when there is ___(#) chirality center in the molecule. Alternatively, we can use __________ projections to show the chirality center.
The chiral amino acids are (L or D?)-amino acids. Fischer projections represent an ___-amino acid with the ___________ at the left.
Are D-amino acids produced in nature?
This is in contrast to the majority of __________ found in nature, which are ___-sugars. In a Fischer projection, an L-amino acid is drawn with the amine on the ________ and the hydrogen on the ________. A D-amino acid has the ________ and the ______________ reversed. By convention, the carboxylic acid is drawn where? Why is that?
Where is the side chain is drawn? The side chain is drawn in ______________ notation, even if there is another chirality center in the side chain.
All our receptors and enzymes are _______ (chiral or achiral?) because they are proteins constructed from L-amino acids.
chirality center; wedge and dash notation
enantiomer; 1; Fischer
L; L; amine
sugars; D; left; right; amine; hydrogen; top; most oxidized
____________(#) of the 20 natural amino acids can also be synthesized by the cell from various ____________ __________________. The other nine amino acids, the essential amino acids, must be supplied regularly through the _______.
11; metabolic intermediates; diet
The essential amino acids are obtained from both ________ and _____________ proteins. Animal sources are often said to provide "_______________- protein" because they contain ______(#) of the essential amino acids. Single vegetable sources of amino acids are usually missing one or more essential amino acids, although ___________ is an exception.
animal; vegetable; complete; all/9; quinoa
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