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Arnold Toynbee

coined phrase "Industrial Revolution"


key machine of modern industrial age

"take off" period

Steam machine is invented in mid1700s (what period)

Agricultural Revolution, Commercial Revolution, Raw Materials, Markets, Capital, Rising Population, Role of Parliament, New Values

Why was Britain first? (give 8 reasons)

enclosure movement

lands that had been held in common by tenant farmers were permitted to be enclosed into large, private farms worked by much smaller workforce.


agricultural improvements led to...

commercial revolution

Britain becomes a global economy

coal and iron ore

Raw materials of Britain


Indian export to Britain

Growing domestic population, Growing global empire, European demand for cheap British goods

How did Britain exploit 3 markets? (3)

Atlantic Trade

How was capital acquired in Britain?

white gold

slaves created this crop

Bank of England

Transferred capital

Lloyd's of London

Insured capital

London Stock Exchange

marketplace for shares

patent system

people's inventions were protected from being copied

The Wealth of Nations

Adam Smith: government's goal should be steady increase in the material prosperity of population and overall wealth of nation

Protestant work ethic

new values seen in the:

cottage system

all steps done by hand, slow and inefficient

factory system

vertical integration, production centralized, used steam engines (price of production dropped)


British weavers who destroyed looms- blamed machinery for rising unemployment

Nedd Ludd

mythical leader of the Luddites

Frame Breaking Act

loom breaking became a capital offense


people with difficulty using modern technology

James Watt

improved the steam engine: used coal, not water and used rotary motion

Duke of Bridgewater

commissioned canal into Manchester from entrance of coal mines


powered by humans, horse, gravity and moved coal along wooden rails

George Stephenson

the rocket (steam powered locomotive)

less isolation, "railway time", nationalism

Benefits of Transportation Revolution (3)


where were factories located?

Municipal Corporations Act

taxes rose to try to pay for improvements with typhoid and cholera

"Great Stink"

smell from Thames, new sewer system later created

Sir Robert Peel

head of bobbies (police force)

Charles Dickens

portrayed dismal cities in Hard Times and David Copperfield

New Working Class

faced low wages, long hours, hard conditions

standard of living

rose in 1850

work discipline

as standard of living went up, there was a new ____ in the family

cult of domesticity

middle class women embraced their role in the domestic sphere

Saddler Commission

exposed horrors of child labor

consumer revolution

rising income-more consumers-more wages

social emulation

each social class aspired to the habits and patterns of consumption of their superiors

Thornstein Veblen

The Theory of the Leisure Class

Great Exhibition of 1851

Crystal Palace- marked peak of British economic dominance

US, Germany, Britain

Britain, US, Germany....becomes.....


economists who wanted less government control

Adam Smith

founder of capitalism, "invisible hand", law of supply and demand naturally increases prosperity

Thomas Malthus

Essay on Population, population growth: geometric food growth: arithmetic

David Ricardo

Iron law of wages- if population grows faster than economy, there will be too many workers and too few jobs- wages fall and unemployed die

Dismal science

nickname of classical capitalism


concept of collective rather than individual well being, society's problems are being caused by social change- society has responsibility to address these problems

socialist ideas

1. economic systems is unfair to worker
2. collective ownership of "means of production"
3. society's wealthy equally distributed
4. government plays a role in bringing this change about

Utopian Socialism

by means of good planning and government regulation, economies could be made to prosper without exploiting the working class (creation of cooperative communities- Charles Fourier, Robert Owen)

Robert Owen

found model utopia at New Lanark, Scotland


more radical form of Scientific Socialism

Karl Marx

Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital


wrote Communist Manifesto with Marx


factory owners, businessmen, middle class (name according to Marx)


industrial working class (name according to Marx)

concepts of Marxism

1. Class struggle
2. Revolution and overthrow of capitalism
3. Dictatorship of proletariat
4. Classless society (no gov)

flaws of Marxism

wrong about:
1. more industrialization=more revolution
2. less middle class
3. violent revolution needed for reform
4. capitalism would collapse

Revolutionist Socialism

no need for violent revolution, "democratic"

Fabian Society

Revolutionist Socialist group

Labour Party

one of the parties in UK today, revolutionist socialists group

Factory Act of 1833

age/hour limits, government inspections

Mines Act of 1842

age/hour limits in mines

Combination Acts

outlawed unions

Repeal of Combination Acts

Unions allowed (no strikes)

Trade Union Act

unions allowed to strike

Old Age Pension Act

retirement money granted

National Insurance Act

people out of work receive some pay from gov for certain amount of time

Repeal of Test Act

all Protestants could hold office

Catholic Emancipation Act

gave Catholics full civil rights

Royal Charters

people had seats in Parliament even if in a "rotten borough"

Reform Bill of 1832

Right to vote to all men who own property (middle class)

Charist Movement

vote for all men

People's Charter

presented 3 times, took 20 yrs to pass

Reform Bill of 1867

almost all men can vote (not farmers)

Reform Bill of 1884

all men over 21 can vote (not domestic servants)

Emmeline Plankhurst

leader of Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU)

Emily Davidson

killed as she ran in protest in front of king's horse

Reform Bill of 1918

Women over 30 can vote and all men over 21

John Stuart Mill

failed to get women right to vote

Flapper Act

women over 25 can vote

Mary Wollstonecraft

A Vindication of the Rights of Women

Caroline Norton

Marriage and Divorce Acts

Custody Act

women gained legal rights over children

Married Women's Property Act

women gained ownership over her goods in marriage

Emily Davies

founder of Girton College

Hanover and Queen Victoria

allowed monarch power to erode

Parliament Act of 1911

eliminated role of House of Lords

Internal Combustion Engine

used gasoline to power larger vehicles

Model T

Henry Ford's new affordable car

assembly line

improved efficiency and reduced costs


replaced steam use in factories

Thomas Edison

produced generators efficient enough to power large industrial machines, the light bulb inventor

Samuel Morse

telegraph inventor

Alexander Graham Bell

telephone inventor

Guglielmo Marconi

send electrical signals without wire

mass society

result of rising incomes and shorter work weeks= more leisure time and entertainment

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