West Civ Chapter 8

Arnold Toynbee
coined phrase "Industrial Revolution"
key machine of modern industrial age
"take off" period
Steam machine is invented in mid1700s (what period)
Agricultural Revolution, Commercial Revolution, Raw Materials, Markets, Capital, Rising Population, Role of Parliament, New Values
Why was Britain first? (give 8 reasons)
enclosure movement
lands that had been held in common by tenant farmers were permitted to be enclosed into large, private farms worked by much smaller workforce.
agricultural improvements led to...
commercial revolution
Britain becomes a global economy
coal and iron ore
Raw materials of Britain
Indian export to Britain
Growing domestic population, Growing global empire, European demand for cheap British goods
How did Britain exploit 3 markets? (3)
Atlantic Trade
How was capital acquired in Britain?
white gold
slaves created this crop
Bank of England
Transferred capital
Lloyd's of London
Insured capital
London Stock Exchange
marketplace for shares
patent system
people's inventions were protected from being copied
The Wealth of Nations
Adam Smith: government's goal should be steady increase in the material prosperity of population and overall wealth of nation
Protestant work ethic
new values seen in the:
cottage system
all steps done by hand, slow and inefficient
factory system
vertical integration, production centralized, used steam engines (price of production dropped)
British weavers who destroyed looms- blamed machinery for rising unemployment
Nedd Ludd
mythical leader of the Luddites
Frame Breaking Act
loom breaking became a capital offense
people with difficulty using modern technology
James Watt
improved the steam engine: used coal, not water and used rotary motion
Duke of Bridgewater
commissioned canal into Manchester from entrance of coal mines
powered by humans, horse, gravity and moved coal along wooden rails
George Stephenson
the rocket (steam powered locomotive)
less isolation, "railway time", nationalism
Benefits of Transportation Revolution (3)
where were factories located?
Municipal Corporations Act
taxes rose to try to pay for improvements with typhoid and cholera
"Great Stink"
smell from Thames, new sewer system later created
Sir Robert Peel
head of bobbies (police force)
Charles Dickens
portrayed dismal cities in Hard Times and David Copperfield
New Working Class
faced low wages, long hours, hard conditions
standard of living
rose in 1850
work discipline
as standard of living went up, there was a new ____ in the family
cult of domesticity
middle class women embraced their role in the domestic sphere
Saddler Commission
exposed horrors of child labor
consumer revolution
rising income-more consumers-more wages
social emulation
each social class aspired to the habits and patterns of consumption of their superiors
Thornstein Veblen
The Theory of the Leisure Class
Great Exhibition of 1851
Crystal Palace- marked peak of British economic dominance
US, Germany, Britain
Britain, US, Germany....becomes.....
economists who wanted less government control
Adam Smith
founder of capitalism, "invisible hand", law of supply and demand naturally increases prosperity
Thomas Malthus
Essay on Population, population growth: geometric food growth: arithmetic
David Ricardo
Iron law of wages- if population grows faster than economy, there will be too many workers and too few jobs- wages fall and unemployed die
Dismal science
nickname of classical capitalism
concept of collective rather than individual well being, society's problems are being caused by social change- society has responsibility to address these problems
socialist ideas
1. economic systems is unfair to worker
2. collective ownership of "means of production"
3. society's wealthy equally distributed
4. government plays a role in bringing this change about
Utopian Socialism
by means of good planning and government regulation, economies could be made to prosper without exploiting the working class (creation of cooperative communities- Charles Fourier, Robert Owen)
Robert Owen
found model utopia at New Lanark, Scotland
more radical form of Scientific Socialism
Karl Marx
Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital
wrote Communist Manifesto with Marx
factory owners, businessmen, middle class (name according to Marx)
industrial working class (name according to Marx)
concepts of Marxism
1. Class struggle
2. Revolution and overthrow of capitalism
3. Dictatorship of proletariat
4. Classless society (no gov)
flaws of Marxism
wrong about:
1. more industrialization=more revolution
2. less middle class
3. violent revolution needed for reform
4. capitalism would collapse
Revolutionist Socialism
no need for violent revolution, "democratic"
Fabian Society
Revolutionist Socialist group
Labour Party
one of the parties in UK today, revolutionist socialists group
Factory Act of 1833
age/hour limits, government inspections
Mines Act of 1842
age/hour limits in mines
Combination Acts
outlawed unions
Repeal of Combination Acts
Unions allowed (no strikes)
Trade Union Act
unions allowed to strike
Old Age Pension Act
retirement money granted
National Insurance Act
people out of work receive some pay from gov for certain amount of time
Repeal of Test Act
all Protestants could hold office
Catholic Emancipation Act
gave Catholics full civil rights
Royal Charters
people had seats in Parliament even if in a "rotten borough"
Reform Bill of 1832
Right to vote to all men who own property (middle class)
Charist Movement
vote for all men
People's Charter
presented 3 times, took 20 yrs to pass
Reform Bill of 1867
almost all men can vote (not farmers)
Reform Bill of 1884
all men over 21 can vote (not domestic servants)
Emmeline Plankhurst
leader of Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU)
Emily Davidson
killed as she ran in protest in front of king's horse
Reform Bill of 1918
Women over 30 can vote and all men over 21
John Stuart Mill
failed to get women right to vote
Flapper Act
women over 25 can vote
Mary Wollstonecraft
A Vindication of the Rights of Women
Caroline Norton
Marriage and Divorce Acts
Custody Act
women gained legal rights over children
Married Women's Property Act
women gained ownership over her goods in marriage
Emily Davies
founder of Girton College
Hanover and Queen Victoria
allowed monarch power to erode
Parliament Act of 1911
eliminated role of House of Lords
Internal Combustion Engine
used gasoline to power larger vehicles
Model T
Henry Ford's new affordable car
assembly line
improved efficiency and reduced costs
replaced steam use in factories
Thomas Edison
produced generators efficient enough to power large industrial machines, the light bulb inventor
Samuel Morse
telegraph inventor
Alexander Graham Bell
telephone inventor
Guglielmo Marconi
send electrical signals without wire
mass society
result of rising incomes and shorter work weeks= more leisure time and entertainment