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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
Terms in this set (139)
what were the problems in france that led to the revolution?
-split in three estates
-split into 39 provinces with different leaders and different languages (king couldn't control all of them)
-poverty (due to taxes)
what were the estates
what were the role of the 3rd estate
took up 90% of the population
also included the bougesiousie
didn't have political rights
most of the taxes were on them(and the taxes were paid for wars palaces, wealthy lifestyle, aristocracy and public projects)
what was the role of the second estate
exempt from many taxes
owned a lot of land
political power, and economic power
largest group of well off people
merchants, business men in commerce and trade
invested in education
when king xvi took over they tripled
bought political power
what was the role of the first estate(roman catholic church)
even more powerful than the king
responsible for education, aid, charity hope
why did the 3rd estate have mixed feelings about the clergy
although the clergy provided hope, and stability, they took up most of the wealth from their tithes, and also paid no taxes
absolute monarchy by divine right (god given) -- absolutism
what factors complicated the task of governing france
-overlapping jurisdicitons(no checks and balances, inherited authoritated rule)
-france was internally divided (each province had its own governors)
-at this time france wasn't unified
how was the king able to rule france
-final say over all descisoin and policies
-depended on nobilities and officials to carry out policies
what was the estates general
-didn't representative body of france
-made up of three groups (1 estate, 2 estate, 3 estate)
the highests courts of the law in the land
where the king registered all new laws
the overlapping administrative boundaries
responsible for administrating the governing regions of france
time period where new scientific, philosophical ideas emerged, creating a more educative society
how did the enlightenment pose a threat towards french society
-challenged the catholic church
-rationality over religion
-questioned divine right
spoke out frequently against catholic church and religious persecution and compared Britain's constitutional monarchy and parliamentary government to France's absolute monarchy
outlined the principal separation of governmental power into three branches of government: executive judicial and legislative to encourage liberty
understanding the world based on rationality with a critical attitude towards everything especially the church
progress in arts and science hurt humanity, same rights, trusted the government to establish authority and protect the liberty of the citizens
why did the gov't want to reform france's agricultural problem
he wanted to increase the production of grain by makin git more profitable to grow
what was france's agricultural problem
third estate couldn't afford the bread they produced due to the frequent increase in prices.
how did the third estate react to the agricultural crisis
angry they ceased grain and attempted to sell it as their own at a fair price
thought gov't wanted to starve the lower classes and benefit the wealthy
how did the 2nd and middle class react to the agricultural crisis
they were threatened by the third estate's anger
causes of financial crises
wars against GB, because they were trying to get a navy
france owed money due to the war, couldn't repay their loans
made people not want to trade with france
why did france support the american rev
wanted to weaken britain by restoring patriotism
what effect did the american rev have on france
ideas of revolution inspired french philosophy
another war that they had to pay
how did the role of public opinion change in france about the financial troubles
unequal taxes and high prices of bread caused people to write about their feelings in writing, demonstrations and riots.
put more pressure on the third estate, caused potential revolution
led reason to reform gov't
what was the outcome of the financial troubles
proposal for sweeping reforms because the people were recognizing the importance of the public opinion of politics
monarchy felt threatened
first and second estates voted for their representatives
2:1 ratio, because first and second estate wanted the monarchy, and third didn't
you had to be a man of 25 who was property
list of grievances
didn't call for a revolution, called for
limit to noble priviledges
end tithes of the church
what led to riots and violence in the spring of 1789
shortages of bread, high taxation, and tithes caused the price of bread to double caused poor people to incite violence
why was the estates general unable to make profess solving france's probe
2:1 ratio, people were debating on how many votes that they got
tennis court oath
kicked third estate out of estates general, they moved to a tennis court to discuss how they won't leave until they institute a new constituttion
authority started by third estate bc other estates weren't cooperating, later clergy worked together
reaction to the tennis court oath
- king faced more turmoil that threatened the Old Regime
- king made the First and Second Assemblies join the National Assembly to make it seem like the king "supported" the reforms
-members of the National Assembly began writing a constitution --> the gov't drafted mercenaries
problems with the mercenaries
some thought that they would be less reluctant to use force on the French people than French soldiers (French people=scared)
What was the response to the kings decision to relate his ministers?
when the king replaced four of his ministers with more conservative ones, it proved to be the tipping point for a powerful reaction among the people
-crowds burns toll stations
-WORRIED that mercenaries would move against them so they tried to get as many weapons as possible
one of the four ministers that was fired but he was popular because he supported keeping the price of bread low
why did the crowds attack the Bastille?
-they were searching for weapons bc they knew it had a large arsenal of gunpowder
humans are genuinely equal, and so are prone to fighting, therefore government must have total power to manage them without getting power from god
humans are good enough to revolt if the government is unfit bc the government gets its power from the people
what was the king's reaction to the attack of the Bastille?
-he pretends to support the revolution by ordering all troops to be withdrawn from Paris, and join the National Assembly
-reappoints Jacques Necker as finance minister
---> gains more support of the people (National Assembly is renamed National Constituent Assembly)
what was the "great fear?"
-a time after the attack of the Bastille of hunger and grain shortages, leading to desperation and violence
-rumors that the countryside would be attacked or the crops would be stolden
----> PEASANTS LASH OUT AT THE TAX SYSTEM by refusing to pay the tithes, burning records of debt
how did the fear spread?
-some though that the nobility was hoarding grain and hiring criminals to steal their crops
-British was paying to incite riots through France
feelings in the National Constituent Assembly
felt optimistic, since the three estates had joined by the thought of being united to change France
tasks of the National Constituent Assembly
they had to create a new constitution all while trying to govern a country of rebellion
what was a major change that the national constituent assembly presented?
ended many of the privileges of nobility to try and calm the peasants, called to end slavery, fought for freedom of religion, and ban nobility
ie. ended tax privileges, exclusive hunting rights and special tolls, payment if tithes, and the purchase of public offices
why did the deputies write the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen?
promised liberty and equality to citizens and emphasized the need for constitutional protection of these rights and that the right to rule was in the people and less so the king
what were the divisions in the assembly?
1. moderates (majority)
2. conservative nobility and clergy
3. radical "patriot" deputies (minority)
believed that the revolution was over and thought that France would become a constitutional monarchy (sat in middle of president)
believe the revolution had gone too far and that the king should maintain authority and the privileges of the nobility should be reclaimed (sat on right of president)
radical "patriot" deputies
wanted more rights for all with political rights and legal equality for Protestants DID NOT want to end monarchy (sat on the left of president)
how did people get involved with the new assembly
the people formed political clubs where they debated issues in front of the assembly
a pro-revolutionary reform group, not legitimate political party though but rather a collection of intellectuals with more than 900 participants led by Maximillian Robespierre
how did the assembly weaken the power of the king
he could no longer propose new laws and he had a set salary by the legislature
the assembly a agreed that the king could choose not to approve legislation, but could be overrided by the assembly is it was passed three times before
how did the public react to the suspensive veto?
the public opposed to this change and were still overwhelmed by the price of bread. And so, thousand of WOMEN marched to Versailles to invade the palace and demand that the king return with them where he was welcomed amicably
how did the assembly decide who could vote and participate in politics?
"active" citizens were the only people who could vote (4,3 million Frenchmen)
who was considered to be an "active" citizen
men over the age of 25 who paid a certain amount of taxes
who was considered to be a "passive" citizen
the people in France who were entitle to CIVIL but NOT POLITICAL rights which challenged the principles of equality in the Declaration if the Rights of Man and Citizen
how did the assembly recognize France?
the assembly recognized administrative divisions in France: 83 departments that were all roughly equal in size, which were further divided into districts and communes with citizen-elected local officials
how did the assembly make France democratic?
-enabled citizens to vote for local officials
-reformed the judicial system
-made trial by jury the standard
how did the assembly try to change he Roman Catholic Church in France?
-lands and properties owned by the Catholic Church in France belonged to the nation
-sold these lands to help pay gov't debts
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
assembly tried to reorganize the church as a government:
-priests and bishops were elected by the people
-lessened the Pierre of the pope
what was the popes opinion on the Cilvil Constitution of the Clery
he objected from this because he thought it contradicted their beliefs so the assembly insisted that priests take an oath of loyalty to the gov't
how did the civil constitution if the clergy reduce the support for the revolution?
it split France into people who supported (patriots) -priests who refused to take oath were seen as dangerous counter revolutionists- the priests pledge of loyalty and those who objected to this pledge bc they thought it threatened their religious practices; leading to violent threats- attempt to destroy the church
what did the assembly decide to do about slavery?
most of the French people opposed to the abolition of slavery unlike small groups and philosophers because they did not want influence the other colonie
why did the king and his family want to escape from Paris?
the king attempted to travel from Paris to his mansion to celebrate Easter with an unsworn priest, and so crowds did not let him leave and he was essentially a prisoner of Paris and had to run away incognito to escape
what was the kings escape plan
he planned to leave at night and teach Mintmedy where he would stop for a counter revolution
what happened at Varennes?
the king got caught and was forced to return to Paris!
what did the king leave when he left Paris?
the king only left behind a letter from his attempt escape that criticized the revolution and worried about the threat anarchy and unrestrained political freedom
how did the public respond to the flight to Varennes?
Before, many people showed affection because he pretended to show support for the revolution. After, it provoked radicals began to call for a republic
how did the assembly try to resolve the kings escape?
they made him sign an unconditional constitution that limited his powers and if he retracted his oath or went again France he would be roved from power, he accepted this deal
what replaced the national assembly ?
the Legislative Assembly
what state of French politics did the Legislative Assembly enter?
french politics was polarized and delegates faced public discontent and suspicion ---> THREAT OF WAR
what has the king's brother been up to during the legislative assembly?
he was gathering foreign powers to invade France and restore the Old Regime
how did the Declaration of Phillntz cause anxiety for the French
it stated the Prussia and Austria would intervene if other European powers would join them, making the French scared of a counter-revolution and invasions
who else threatened a counter revolution?
the NOBILITY! and two thirds of army officers because they did not like the direction of the revolution
how did the people feel towards the king after he fled?
majority of them no longer trusted him with fear of counter revolutionary plots
how did the king use his suspensive veto?
he suspended the decree that emigres who did not return to France would be punished with death (emigres were thought to have the power of military intervention to restore the king's power)
who were the Girondists?
an offshoot of the Jacobins led by Jacques-Pierre Brissot who called for war to protect the revolution from foreign invasions
a faction of the Jacobins led by Robespierre who literally sat high in the assembly hall
what did the king and robespierre think about the war?
they thought france would be crushed by foreign powers because of their disorganized army:
robespierre: war threatened revolution in france
king: thought the same but it was the only hope to regain power --> 23- year international war
what were the consequences of the war?
-badly beaten by Austria and Prussia
-suspicions of treachery plots WITHIN the arm
-any attempt of surrender was seen as treasonous
how were things getting worse during the international war?
-fear and anger spread
-grain shortages and hunger
-king continued vetoing laws posed by radical revolutionists
-French people protested the lack of political and economic progress
middle class artisans who desired the most radical reforms of the revolution ---> radical direction of the revolution
why did the people distrust the army?
because they said that demonstrators and the Jacobin Clubs should be silenced
sans culottes attack the Tuileries Palace
they attacked the kings residence in Paris because, but the king fled to safety
what was a drastic change that the legislative assembly placed?
they suspended the MONARCHY! and established that ALL men were eligible to vote for the new assembly
thousands suspected of counter-revolutionists were thrown in jail and alter executed by demand of the sans culottes (some were priests and nobles) --> france is safe within from treason --> patriotically strong, helped win a decisive battle
what did the convention decide decide after its first meeting?
abolished the monarchy and declared france a republic ----> france was now the most democratic nation in the world
who made up the convention?
majority middle class professionals and lawyers with political beliefs in the Jacobin Clubs with few nobility
what did the convention decide to do with the king?
they decided to try him for treason --> split between the convention of the fate of the king
what did the mountain want to do with the king?
they wanted the immediate execution of the king because they saw the king as a challenge to the revolution
what did the girondists want to do with the king?
they thought they king deserved a fair trial and that the people of france should vote on what to do
what did the king claim during his trial?
that he never knowingly violated any laws or shed any blood. His lawyer questioned the Convention and that he was not a tyrant, but someone who acted on the behalf of the people
what was the conclusion of the king's trial?
he was deemed guilty and was sent to the guillotine
how did the execution of the king pose as a threat to those who supported it?
because if the government failed, they would face trial for killing the king but they felt pressured by the sans culottes threats of violence
what was the reaction to the death of the king?
-shocked the leaders in Europe --> Great Britain, Spain, and the Dutch Republic declared war on France
-France sent a draft for the war ---> resistance
-further divisions in France
how did a civil war begin?
the Catholic and Royal Army clashed with the National Guard and rebelled against revolutionary governmental authorities
why did the convention create the committee of public safety?
they created this in order guide the government since they were overwhelmed in international and Cilvil wars, financial problems, and increasing food prices
who made up the committee?
12 men who eventually created a totalitarian state through fear and terror to subdue it's opponents for the name of liberty and equality
how did the mountain gain control of the convention?
after fighting a faints the Girondists over the influence of the sans culottes, the Girondists were later expelled from the assembly, giving the mountain power
how did the terror begin?
the convention declared drastic action against enemies of the revolution:
high prices and food shortages, recapturing lost land to rebel forces, and hoarders of basic goods
Law of Maximum
a law that set maximum prices on food with the riding food prices
Law of Suspects
provoked by a campaign to eliminate anyone deemed treasonous, the law of suspects limited judicial protections and expanded the definition of what a political crime was and created revolutionary courts causing feeling of unsafety
what was the result of the terror?
nobles, priests, Girondists, and many others who did not show support of the revolution was tried and killed
what happened to Lyon?
Lyon was captured by rebel forces so the committee decided to make it an example of terror and destroy the city
how did the civil war end?
thanks to the draft France gained enough military power and drive out the British fleet
how did the convention reduce the role of the Catholic Church?
they wanted a society based on principles of reason rather than god so the convention made many cultural changes:
abandoned the X-ian calendar, ended education in Church and other services, and no longer registered things to the church but to the city hall in stead all to lessen the power of the Catholic Church.
what was the conventions intent of lessening the power of the church
to improve the life of the poor but instead the ended many services they relied on
a government official led agenda, not approved by committee, that believed that the church was the root if their resistance where all churches were closed and vandalized, street names with "st." were renamed, priests were forbidden to wear religious clothes, and nuns and priests were forced to marry
what did Robespierre think about the de-christianization
he thought that it would create backlash against the republican gov't, thinking that religious freedom was one of the founding principles of the revolution
how did the terror begin to end?
after ending the civil war and some fights with Europe, some thought that it was time to lessen the terror; but the terror continued to grow thanks to Robespierre
"the cult of the supreme being"
a campaign started by Robespierre to promote civic virtues to unify France, but instead he was accused of trying to become a dictator
how did the terror get worse before it got better?
a new law increased the governments power to seek treasonous people with an even more broad definition for treason allowing trials without lawyer or witnesses
how did the terror finally end
the death of Robespierre
What happened in Thermador?
policies of the revolutionary government became less radical:
-ended harsh laws
-prisoners were released from jail
-religions could freely practiced
-talk to restoring the monarchy increased
reaction following the fall of Robespierre where a radical regime is replaced by a more conservative one
how did shortages of bread continue to trouble France?
poor harvests and so citizens protested for some more radical reforms
what did the convention add in the new constitution?
ended universal suffrage for men to prevent the concentration of power from before, voters were men who paid taxes or served in the army, bicameral legislature
"declaration of ther rights of man"
the constitution of the National Assembly that proves the natural, unalienable, and sacred rights of man
what political issue did the directory face?
the struggle to resolve France's economic problems, political struggles against the royalists
an executive body of the Thermidorian reaction government
what made up the directory?
council of 500- proposed laws
council of ancients (250)- accepted/rejected laws
five directors- chose by the ancients by a list drawn up by the council of 500
how did Napoleon Bonaparte take power in France?
he was a war hero of the French wars, he gained popularity rather quickly through propaganda
the author of What is the Third Estate who created the voice of the importance of the third estate who was a candidate to become one of frances leaders but was over maneuvered by Bonaparte
what was the result of the French Revolution?
following the revolution was the napoleonic era. The French revolution it transformed the relationship of people with it's gov't, ended absolute monarchy, challenged power of the church, and noble privileges--- OVERALL SWITCH IN SOCIETY THAT PRESENTED EQUAL RIGHTS TO THE WORLD. It demonstrated mishear of power in terms of the terror and financial costs.
Lists of governments and major reforms
National Assembly: storming the Bastille, end of feudalism, and the declaration of the rights of man
Legislative Assembly: constitutional monarchy with the king as a symbolic ruler, voting requirements, and Prussia and Russia invade France
National Convention: Jacobins gain control, constitutional monarchy is abolished, France becomes a republic of universal freedom, and the king is executed
Committee of Public Safety: decree against profiteers, law of suspects, the terror, and robespierres death
Decree Against Profiteers
a law that firmly established and accused profiteers in the countryside of hoarding grain in order to control/raise the price of bread
the reign of terror
it was the period referring to the king's execution resulting in the death of thousands of anti-revolutionary suspects
who was considered a "suspect"?
anyone suspected of anti-revolutionary activities or helping Frances enemies -- it eventually got to the point of anyone considered to be supporting duscouragement
courts that were established during the reign of terror
who was the head of the committee?
Law of Prairial
allowed revolutionary tribunals to convict people without hearing evidence
what events led to the death of Robespierre?
Robespierre presented a list of new actions deemed treasonous, but refused to reveal them until tomorrow. People were outraged and sent into a panic, and so they blamed Robespierre for the terror having him arrested and executed.
"republic of virtue"
the government that robespierre sought to build by cleansing france of its past by actively showing support of the revolution (civic virtue)
what did the assembly implement into their constitution that caused mixed reactions
decided on a unicameral legistlature, and a suspensive veto which meant the king could choose not to approve of the legistlation
how did the assembly reorganize france
provinces and generalities were replaced into 83 equal districts
the citizens would elect their own local officials
created a national guard
made trial by jury standard
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