28 terms

Chapter 14: Forging the National Economy

Tiffany Geier
rendezvous system
The basis for the American fur-trapping industry where many traders ventured to the Rocky Mountains each summer to trade with fur-trappers and Indians for pelts in exchange for manufactured goods.
ecological imperialism
Aggressive and often heedless exploitation of Western America's natural resources
George Catlin
An american painter and student of Native American life. He was one of the first Americans to advocate for the preservation of nature. He proposed for the creation of a national park.
Ireland Potato Famine
In the mid-1840s, a disease fell upon the potato crops, which the people had become very closely dependent on. About 1/4 of Irelands population died of disease and starvation. Several thousand Irish that survived fled to America to escape the famine.
The Ancient Order of the Hibernians
A semisecret society founded founded in Ireland to fight landlords that served in America as a benevolent society to aid the downtrodden Irish immigrants.
Molly Maguires
An Irish miners' union who engaged in a violent confrontation with pennsylvania mining companies in the 1860s and 70s.
"Native" americans who feared that immigrants would take jobs away frm them and impose their Roman Catholic beliefs on society.
Order of the Star-Spangled Banner/ Know Nothing Party
People involved in this group advocated for rigid restrictions on immigration and naturalization and for laws authorizing the deportation of alien paupers.
Samuel Slater
"Father of the Factory System" in America; escaped Britain with the memorized plans for the textile machinery; put into operation the first efficient American machinery for spinning cotton thread in 1791.
Moses Brown
A Quaker capitalist from Rhode Island who financially backed Samuel Slater in his building of a machine to spin cotton thread.
Eli Whitney
A mechanical genius from Massachusetts who invented the cotton gin, which greatly improved efficiency, and the South was able to clear more acres of cotton fields, which also increased the demand for slaves. Whitney was also the inventor of interchangable parts for muskets used by the U.S. Army.
Cotton Gin
Invented by Eli Whitney in 1793. It removed seeds from cotton fibers. Now cotton could be processed quickly and cheaply.
Industrial Revolution
Change in technology, brought about by improvements in machinery and by use of steam power.
Tariff of 1816
First tariff instituted primarily for protection rather than revenue.
Elias Howe
Invented the sewing machine in 1846 which became the foundation of the ready-made clothing industry.
"free incorporation"
First passed in New York in 1848, this allowed businessmen to create corporationswithout applying for individual charters from the legislature.
Samuel F. B. Morse
He was a poor portrait painter who invented the telegraph. In 1844, he strung a wire 40 miles from Washington to Boston and tapped out, "What hath God wrought?" He brought distantly separated people in almost instant communication.
Commonwealth v. Hunt
In 1842, the supreme court of Massachusetts ruled that labor unions were not illegal conspiracies, provided that their methods were "honorable and peaceful."
Cathrine Beecher
The sister of Harriet Beecher Stowe. She tirelessly urged women to enter into the teaching profession.
"cult of domesticity"
Emphasizing the role of good homemaker, it made the home a woman's special sphere.
Cyrus McCormick
A Virginia-born man who, in the 1830s, invented the mower-reaper. With the use of this tool a single man could do the work of five men with sickles and scythes. His invention was the equivalent in the west to the cotton gin to the south. This invention led to cash-crop culture dominating the west.
Lancaster Turnpike
A private company completed this in Pennsylvania in the 1790s. It was a broad, hard-surfaced highway that extended 62 miles from Philadelphia to Lancaster. This was essentially a toll road that was successful in that it returned as high as 15% annual dividends to its stockholders.
Robert Fulton
Inventor of the steamboat, which as a boat that had a powerful steam engine. These enabled boats to travel upstream on rivers, thus increasing trade while at the same time improving inter and state transportation.
Erie Canal
Under the leadership of Governor DeWitt Clinton, New Yorkers themselvesdug the Erie Canal which linked the Great Lakes with the Hudson River. This project, also known as "Clinton's Big Ditch," was started in 1817 and was finished in 1825 and stretched 363 miles.
Cyrus Field
In 1858, he stretched a cable under the North Atlantic waters from Newfoundland to Ireland. This first cable went dead after 3 weeks but a heavier cable was laid in 1866, permanently linking the American and European continents.
clipper ships
Long, narrow, wooden ships made in the 1840s and 1850s, with tall masts and enormous sails. These ships were very fast moving through the water and were used for trade, especially for transporting perishable products to distant countries such as in the Far East. However, these ships did sacrifice cargo space for speed.
Pony Express
This was established in 1860 to carry mail quickly the two thousand miles between St. Joseph, Missouri to Sacramento, California. This trip could be made in 10 days.
market revolution
This revolution transformed a subsistence economy of small farms and workshops into a national network of industry and commerce.