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30 terms

acids bases salts

acidic solution
contains more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions
basic solution
contains more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions
Arrhenius model
states that an acid is a substance that contains hydrogen and ionizes to produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solution. A base is a substance that contains a hydroxide group and dissociates to produce a hydroxide ion in AQ solution
Bronsted-Lowry model
an acid is a hydrogen-ion donor and a base is a hydrogen-ion acceptor
conjugate acid
species produced when a base accepts a hydrogen ion from an acid
conjugate base
species that results when an acid donates a hydrogen ion to a base
conjugate acid-base pair
2 substances related to each other by the donating and accepting of a single hydrogen ion
water and other substances that can act as both acids and bases
monoprotic acid
acid that can only donate only one hydrogen ion
oxides that become acids or bases by adding the elements contained in water
strong acids
acids that ionize completely
weak acid
acid that ionizes only partially in dilute aq solutions
strong acid gives ___ conjugate base
acid ionization constant
Ka, or the value of the equilibrium constant expression for the ionization of a weak acid. indicates whether reactions or products are favored at equilibrium
strong bases
dissociate entirely into metal ions and hydroxide ions
weak base
ionizes only partially in dilute aq solution to form conjugate acid of base and hydroxide ion
base ionization constant
Kb, the value of the equilibrium constant expression for the ionization of a base
ion product constant for water
Kw, value of the equilibrium constant expression for the self ionization of water. is 1.0 x 10^-14
pH + pOH =
neutralization reaction
where acid and base react in aq solution to produce a salt and water
ionic compound made up of cation from base and an anion from an acid
method for determining the concentration of a solution by reacting a known volume of the solution with a solution of known concentration
equivalence point
stoichiometric point of the titration
acid-base indicators
chemical dyes whose colors are affected by acidic and basic solutions
end point
point at which indicator used in titration changes color
salt hydrolysis
anions of dissociated salt accept hydrogen ions from water or the cations of the dissociated salt donate hydrogen ions to water
solutions that resist changes to pH when limited amounts of acid/base are added
buffer capacity
amount of acid/base a buffer solution can absorb without a significant change in pH