Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Chapter 6 Objectives 1-14 Chapter 7 Bone Diagrams Chapter 8 Objectives 1-10 (#10 only knee)
Terms in this set (61)
Describe the functional properties of the three types of cartilage tissue.
Hyaline cartilage: Offers flexibility and resilient with closely packed collagen fibers
Fibrous cartilage: Extremely durable and tough, a good shock absorber
Elastic cartilage: Stretchy & resilient, many elastic fibers; tolerates distortion without damage and returns to original shape
Locate the major cartilages of the adult skeleton.
Hyaline cartilage: Ribs to sternum, bone surfaces at synovial joints, nasal septum, trachea, and bronchi
Fibrous cartilage: Vertebral disks and pubic symphysis
Elastic cartilage: Mostly ear & epiglottis, but a bit in ear canal and larynx
Name the major regions of the skeleton.
Axial skeleton and Appendicular skeleton
Compare and contrast the four bone classes and provide examples of each class.
Short bone: small, flat bones (Patella and other sesamoid bones)
Long bone: longer than wide; has a shaft plus two ends (humerus, and femur)
Irregular bone: (Spinal vertebrae, bone of pelvis, and several skull bones)
Flat bone: flat, thin, curvy (Roof of skull, sternum, ribs and scapulae)
What are the two types of short bone? Describe the two types of short bone.
Sesamoid bones: small, flat bones that develop inside tendons and most commonly near joints at the knees
Sutural (wormian) bones: small, flat, irregularly shaped bones found between flat bones of the skull
Indicate the functional importance of bone markings.
Holes in bone for nerves and blood vessels; and places where ligaments and tendons can attach to bone.
Indicate the locations and functions of red marrow, and yellow marrow.
Red marrow-> young bone: blood cell formation (hematopoisesis)
Yellow marrow-> older bone: storage of minerals, growth factor and fat
Describe and identify the parts of spongy bone.
Consists of a network of structs and plates of bone
Traneculae: house red/yellow marrow in epiphyses of long bones, in the sternum, and ilium
Describe and identify the parts of compact bone.
Solid bone, provides a sturdy protective layer the surrounds a medullary cavity with osteons.
Osteon (Haversian system): basic functional unit of mature compact bone
Lamellae: layers of (mineral) matrix; like a target with the central canal as the bull's eye
Central (Haversian) & Volkmann's canals: blood vessels and nerves connect to periosteum
Osteocytes and lacunae: mature bone cells that make up most of the cell pollution; found in lacunae
Canaliculi: tiny cancels that connect the osteocytes with one another with sources of nutrients (blood, oxygen etc)
What is the chemical composition of bone?
Organic matter (produced by osteoblasts): Cells, produce osteoid (ground substance and collagen fibers *organic matter gives bone strength by resisting stretching and twisting and overall flexibility
Inorganic matter (2/3 of matrix): Mostly calcium phosphate, together form crystals of hydroxyapatite *harden the matrix and account of rigidity that provides its compressional strength
Compare and contrast intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification.
Intramembranous ossification: formed from fibrous membrane
Endochondral ossification: one developed by replacing hyaline cartilage (used as a model for new bone formation)
Identify the hormones that influence bone growth and describe their effects.
Growth hormone/somtotropin: protein synthesis and cell growth throughout body
Thyroid hormone: cell metabolism and increase osteoblast (bone forming) activity (manages amount of growth hormone)
Sex hormones (estrogen & testosterone): increase rate of bone formation
Cortisol (stress hormone): catabolic and anti-growth effects
Serotonin: neurotransmitter that plays a role in normal bone remodeling since it affects osteoblast differentiation
Explain the activation of vitamin D to calcitriol.
Vitamin D is needed for the synthesis of calcitriol
Explain how physical stress regulates bone remodeling.
Wolff's Law: bone grows/remodels in respond to demands placed on it; stress is detected by osteocytes and communicated to osteoblasts which increase synthesis of osteoid and this is followed by deposition of mineral salts
Results from skeletal muscle contraction acting not the bones and from gravitational forces
What parts of the human body are included in the axial skeleton?
Skull, ribs, and spine
What parts of the human body are included in the appendicular skeleton?
Limbs (legs, pelvis, and arms)
What are the functions of bone?
Support, protection, movement, blood cell formation, storage of minerals (calcium & phosphate), growth factor and triglyceride (fats) storage
Describe the gross anatomy of long bone.
Diaphysis: tubular shaft consisting of compact bone (medullary marrow cavity/yellow marrow)
Epiphyses: expanded area at each end of the diaphysis containing mostly spongy bone (epiphyseal line and plate/metaphysis- disc of hyaline cartilage grows to lengthen the bone)
Membranes: Periosteum (double membrane- cover external surface of bone, not joint); endosteum with osteogeneic cells (grows all bones), osteoblasts, osteoclasts
What are osteogeneic cells?
Stem cells; they divide to produce osteoblasts
What are osteoblasts?
Produce new bone matrix though ossification/osteogenesis; make an release proteins and other organic components of the matrix (called osteoid)
What are osteoclasts?
Breakdown bone through osteolysis/resorption with the help of protein-digesting and acids
Describe the gross anatomy of flat bone.
Diploe: the layer of spongy bone between layers of compact bone within the cranium; red marrow present
What are the four types of bone cells?
Osteogenic cells, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes
What is a secondary ossification center?
Form in epiphyses (usually at birth); part of endochondral ossification
What are mesenchymal cells?
Multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types; part of intramembranous ossification)
Identify the hormones that influence bone remodeling and describe their effects.
Calcitonin & parathyroid hormone (PTH): hydroxyapatite of matrix
Calcitriol: part of bone reabsorption
Site where two or more bone meet
Classify joints structurally.
Fiberous joint: the bones are joined together by fibrous tissues (dense regular CT) and lack a joint cavity; immovable)
Cartilaginous joint: bones are joined together by cartilage and lack a joint cavity (somewhat moveable)
Synovial joints: articulating bones are separated by fluid-containing joint cavity (freely moveable)
Classify joints functionally.
Synarthrosis: is an immoveable joint; mostly in axial skeleton
Amphiarthrosis: is a slightly moveable joint
Diarthrosis: is a freely moveable joint; mostly in limbs
Explain the inverse relationship between mobility and stability within a joint.
There is a constant trade off between the two; when the mobility increases the stability decreases and visa versa
What is the structure of fibrous joints?
The bones are joined together by fibrous tissues (dense regular CT) and lack a joint cavity; mostly immovable)
What is the structure of cartilaginous joints?
Bones that are joined together by cartilage and lack a joint cavity (somewhat moveable)
What is the structure of synovial joints?
Articulating bones are separated by fluid-containing joint cavity (freely moveable)
What is the function of synarthrosis joints?
Immovable joint; mostly in the axial skeleton
What is the function of amphiartrosis joints?
Is a slightly moveable joint
What is the function of diathrosis joints?
Is a freely moveable joint; mostly in limbs
Name and give an example of each of the three common types of fibrous joints.
Sutures: between bones of skull
Syndesmoses: ligament between the tibia and fibula
Gomphoses: teeth joined by the periodontal ligament
Name and give examples of each of the two common types of cartilaginous joints.
Synchondrosis: epiphyseal plate
Symphysis: pubic sympysis
Describe the structural characteristics common to all synovial joints. (7)
Articular (hyaline) cartilage
Joint (synovial) cavity
Two-layered articular (joint) capsule
Reinforcing ligaments: (dense regular CT)
Sensory nerves, blood vessels, and tendons
Compare the structures and functions of bursae and tendon sheaths.
Bursae: flattened fibrous sacs lined with synovial membrane and contains a thin film of synovial fluid; reduces friction between adjacent structures during joint cavity/cushion for joints
Tendon sheaths: elegonated bursae the wraps completely around a tendon; stabilizes joint using its fibrous CT
List three natural factors that stabilize synovial joints.
The shapes of articular surfaces of bones
Name and describe the common types of body movements of the body.
Gliding movements: move back-and-forth/side-to-side
Angular movements: increase/decrease angle between two bones (flexion decreases, extension increases)
Abduction: movement of limb/fingers away from the midline of the body/head
Adduction: movement of limb/fingers toward the midline of body/head
Circumduction: moving limb in a circular motion
Describe the knee joints in terms of articulating bones.
Patella (kneecap) and femur
Describe the knee in terms of anatomical characteristics.
(3 in one joint): the femoropatellar joint, the lateral and medial joints between the femoral condyles, and the menisci of the tibia (tibiofemoral joint)
What types of movements are allowed in the knee?
Tibiofemoral joint: hinge allowing flexion/extension; some oration when partly flexed and knee extending
Describe the knee joints in terms of joint stability.
Capsular/extracapsular prevents hyperextension
Oblique popliteal ligament stabilise posterior of knee joint
Arcuate popliteal ligament reinforces the joint capsule
Anterior cruciate ligament prevents hyperextension of knee
What are sutures?
Are immobile fibrous joints between bones of the skull and use very short dense regular CT fibers to hold the bones together
What are synostoses?
Fibrous joints where the bones are connected by a ligament which is a cord/band of fibrous dense regular CT and slight moveable
What are gomphoses?
Are 'Pegs-in-sockets' fibrous joints; only found in the teeth and connected by periodontal ligaments to the mandible/maxilla
What is the structure and function of articular (hyaline) cartilage?
Covers the ends of articulating bones; reduces friction and acts as a spongy cushion
What is the joint (synovial) cavity?
Space that is filled with synovial fluid
What is the structure and function of the two-layered articular (joint) capsule?
Encloses the joint cavity (fibrous dense CT and synovial membrane areolar CT; lubricates the articular cartilage, nourishes the chondrocytes of the articular cartilage, and acts as a shock absorber
What is the synovial fluid?
Is a viscous, slippery fluid that fill all free space within the joint cavity
What is the function of reinforcing ligaments?
Crosses the synovial joints to strengthen the joint
Name the four bones that 'things' that hold the knee stabile.
Oblique popliteal ligament
Arcuate popliteal ligament
Anterior cruciate ligament
The skeletal system is composed of what structures?
Bones, ligaments, and cartilage
List the functions of cartilage.
Provides support for soft tissue
Forms the initial model for endochondral ossification
Provides a smooth gliding surface at the end of bones in freely moveable joints
List the types of tissues of the bone.
Dense irregular CT of the periosteum
Hyaline cartilage CT of the epiphyseal plate and articular cartilage
Bone CT that is the supportive framework of the body
How age of bone is determined.
Epiphyses: if epiphyseal plate is still present, younger
Bone marrow: red marrow is younger
Name and describe the common types of body movements of the forearms. (2)
Supination: moving forearm in carrying soup position
Pronation: moving forearm in dribbling basketball position
Name and describe the common types of body movements of the hand. (1)
Opposition: when you touch thumb with another finger on same hand
Recommended textbook explanations
Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
Michelle Provost-Craig, Susan J. Hall, William C. Rose
Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology
Elaine N. Marieb, Suzanne M. Keller
Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology
David N. Shier, Jackie L. Butler, Ricki Lewis
Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology
Elaine N. Marieb
Sets found in the same folder
A&P Exam #2: Objective (10/30/14)
A&P Exam #1: Bone ID (10/30/14)
A&P: Body Cavities and Membranes
Sets with similar terms
The skeletal system
AVS 333 Skeletal System
Skeletal System test
Anatomy Chapter 5
Other sets by this creator
Navy DEP Start Guide (UPDATED 2015)
Navy DEP Start Guide