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ANT 2100 Unit 3 Study Guide
Down To Earth Archaeology: Chap. 10--Reconstructing Social and Political Systems of the Past, Chap. 11--Archaeology of the Mind, Chap. 12--Historical Archaeology: Insight on American History, Chap. 13--Global Cultural Heritage
Terms in this set (104)
A social position that a person attains largely through his or her own efforts in his life
focused or centered on men; excludes women
A social position assigned to a person by society without regard for the person's unique talents or characteristics; inherited from their parentage
type of social organization consisting of a small number of people (no more than 30 to 50 persons) who form a fluid, egalitarian community and cooperate in activities such as subsistence, security, ritual, and care for children and elders.
Among Plains Indian societies, men who elected to live life as women; they were recognized by their group as a third gender; also know as two-spirits
kinship system in which individuals trace their kinship relationships equally through both parents
part of the social organization found in many Central American communities (especially the Maya) in which a wealthy individual is named to carry out and bear the cost of important religious ceremonies throughout the year
a group of matri or patrilineages who see themselves as descended from a (sometimes mythical) common ancestor.
a form of political organization in which two or more local groups are organized under a single chief (who is the head of a ranked social hierarchy); Consists of several more or less permanently aligned communities.
long strips of paper many meters un length when unfolded ; on which the Maya depicted themselves and developed their remarkable art style ; the Spanish considered them heretical and destroyed all but four of them.
A form of trade in which a person/group goes to the source area of an item to procure the raw material directly or to trade for it or for finished products
an exchange system in which goods are traded outward from a source area from group to group, resulting in a steady decline in the item's abundance in archaeological sites farther from the source ; an unexpectedly high density of the raw material far from the source may indicate a secondary trading center ;
Social systems that contain roughly as many valued positions as there are persons capable of filling them; in these societies, all people have nearly equal access to the critical resources needed to live.
exotics (material culture)
material culture that was not produced locally and/or whose raw material is not found locally ; elite members of the societies trade or give away exotics as a way to communicate and maintain social order.
gender vs. sex
sex is biologically determined(genetically determined) ; gender is socially constructed and changes from culture to culture
behavior that shows favoritism toward one gender over the other
The culturally specific values assigned to the meaning and status of men and women; values can vary from society to society.
the culturally appropriate behavior associated with men and women; roles can vary from society to society
kinship systems and charts
a socially recognized network of relationships through which individuals are related to one another by ties of descent (real or imagined) and marriage ; blends the facts of biological descent with cultural rules that define some people are close kin, others as distant kin, or not kin at all
a type of unilateral descent that is traced through the female line ; only compose about 10% of societies ; often associated with horticulture, long-distance hunting, and warfare with distant enemies
two groups of clans that perform reciprocal ceremonial obligations for one another; the moieties often intermarry.
a type of unilateral descent that follows the father's line only ; make up about 60% of the world's known societies ; societies with unilineal descent commonly forbid marriage between members of the same lineage.
a society's formal and informal institutions that regulate a population's collective acts
Social system in which a hierarchy of social status has been established, with a restricted number of valued positions available;
* In these societies not everyone has same access to critical resources of life
* limit positions of valued status so that not everyone of sufficient talent can achieve them
* relatively permanent social stations maintained
* redistribution economies that redistribute goods and services throughout the community, with those doing the redistributing keeping some for themselves
the rules and structures that govern relationships within a group of interacting people; societies are organized into social units (groups), within which there are social position (status), with appropriate behavior patterns for these positions (roles)
Southeastern Ceremonial Complex
An assortment of ceremonial objects that occurs in the graves of high-status Mississippian individuals ; Ritual exchange of these artifacts crosscut the boundaries of many distinctive local cultures.
A social system with a reliable food source and with established laws, customs, and job specialization
An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs.
Stone monuments erected by Maya rulers to record their history in rich images and hieroglyphic symbols. These symbols can be read and dated.
a social group made up of multiple families or clans
descent that establishes group membership exclusively through either the male or female line
Classic Maya art/heiroglyphics
The Maya often depicted themselves in intricate and complex costumes ; the figures rarely had overt sexual characteristics because of the elaborate costuming ; women are often portrayed weaving, preparing meals, and serving food to others, the men are often depicted with weapons, shields, or other objects of war
Indian Knoll, Kentucky
Large Shell midden site of eastern late archaic
-1,000s of burials ; excavated by C.B. Moore and William Webb ; thousands of shellfish meals were preserved there but it was also a burial place ;
* men were generally buried with axes, fishhooks, and other tools, while women were buried with beads, mortars and pestles.
* some burials had hunting weapons, but they were placed in the graves of men, women, and children.
a Late Mississippian period site in Alabama with 29 earthen mounds, a plaza, and a palisade ; significant center around AD 1200, but most of its residents moved away about AD1250, except for elite families and their retainers ; maize-based with extensive trade ; C.B. Moore conducted archaeological investigations in 1905 and 1906 ; burials provide a basis for studying Mississipian Social Structure;
*each mound contained high status and lower-status individuals determined by the amount and quality of the objects they were buried with ; some infants were buried with lavish grave goods inferring that status was ascribed
Northwest Coast Native Americans
used a lot of cedar bark to make homes and clothes; placed totem poles outside their large multi-family homes that told about the family's history and their social position
1882-1964 ; a formally trained physicist, helped develop the atomic bomb ; Studied the Indian Knoll Shell Midden in Kentucky ; Webb argued that the atlatl, hunting weapons, reflected an intentional burial ritual, rather than grave goods for use in the afterlife. Webb's argument was grounded in the assumption that atlatls were interred buried with the men because they were tools that they used, but because Webb could not conceive of women as hunters he searched for another reason for these tools inclusion in their graves.
*it was primarily a male dominated field
*it was difficult for women to get an education and secure intellectual jobs
*they excavated in patriarchal countries where women weren't allowed in leadership or public roles
*many received little to no compensation
What are the issues that women interested in being archaeologists faced over the years in the profession, and what are women's positions in the profession like today?
* patrilineal -- 60%
* matrilineal -- 10%
* bilateral -- 30%
How do cultures define their kinship systems, using biological descent, cultural rules, or both? What percentages of the population compose each of the three types discussed in the chapter?
Horticulture/long distance hunting--matrilineal
Which types of descent are associated with industrialism, agriculture/pastoralism/hunting and gathering, and horticulture and long distance hunting?
Ethnographic data reveals what patterns of gender roles regarding pottery making and hunting?
Archaeology of the Mind
archaeology that emphasizes the values, ideas, and beliefs that make us human ; this approach will be more postprocessual than processual
Calumet (Peace Pipe)
Pipes used historically to establish friendly contact but was also commonly used as a weapon ; usually made with the pipe or bowl on one side and the shape of a tomahawk on the other ;
prehistoric art found in caves, upper paleolithic period
the study of all those aspects of ancient culture that are the product that are the product of the human mind: the perception, description, and classification of the universe ; the nature of the supernatural ; the principles, philosophies, ethics, and values by which human societies are governed ; and the ways in which aspects of the world, the supernatural, or human values are conveyed in art.
The study of the origin, large-scale structure, and future of the universe. An explanation that demonstrates how the universe developed—both the totality and its constituent parts—and also describes what principles keep it together.
Hopewell effigy pipe
Pipes ornamented with carved animals that rest on a straight or curved base ; probably used to smoke tobacco which was indigenous to the new world ; the effort taken to carve suggests that they were part of a critical part of Hopewell ceremonial life ; part of a transformed ritual atlatl
Art forms or writing systems (such as Maya or Egyptian hieroglyphics) that symbolically represent ideas about religion or cosmology.
archaeological interpretation aimed at understanding the past by reconstructing the point of view of past peoples who produced the archaeological record
A specific set of beliefs about one's relation to the supernatural ; a society's mechanism for relating supernatural phenomena to the everyday world ; some use rituals to influence the course of events, others help novices find their path in the world ; all living cultures have some form so we can assume that this is true of past societies as well.
a succession of discrete behaviors that must be performed in a particular order under particular circumstances ; religious acts and mechanisms by which individuals attempt to intercede with the supernatural
an individual (often men but can be women) who claim to be able to access supernatural powers, spirits, or deceased individuals and tap into the power and influence that they have to offer to the world of the living. They do this through trances brought on by the use of psychotropic drugs, fasting, dehydration, or sensory deprivation. They culturally interpret the visions seen while in an altered state of consciousness as communication with the supernatural world.
a paradigm holding that human culture is the expression of unconscious modes of thought and reasoning, notably binary oppositions. most closely associated with french anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss
rituals in which doing something to an image of an object produces the desired effect in the real object ; a theory that upper Paleolithic cave art had to do with this ;
Upper Paleolithic Period
The last major division of the Old World Paleolithic, beginning about 40,000 years ago and lasting until the end of the Pleistocene (about 10,000 BC) ; In Europe is distinguished by the appearance of a complex technology of stone, bone, and antler as well as wall art, portable art objects, and decorated tools ; artwork crated by talented artisans who knew animal anatomy and behavior ; paintings are deliberately dramatic and rarely depict humans, scenes, story, or landscape ;
the Lakota performed these ceremonies in which men would lie for days on a mountaintop until starvation, dehydration, and exposure brought about visions. These visions were a way for men to communicate with the supernatural world and locate their source of power.
Chavín culture, Peruvian Andes
Considered to be Peru's first highland civilization ; left a lasting legacy on Andean cosmology ; the religious leaders imported Amazonian symbolism perhaps in the belief that lowland people had powerful knowledge ; this society imported religious knowledge from the remote, exotic tropics to the highlands ; used hallucinogens in their rituals ; had a widespread religion that subdivided into localized branches ; large-scale religion, transcending political and ethnic boundaries, with ideologies and rituals that were powerful enough to support a hierarchal organization with officials overseeing local cult activities and monitoring deviations between congregations
Hopewell Interaction Sphere
the common set of symbols found in the midwestern United States between 2200 and 1600 BP ; economic and environmental dependency between regions of Hopewell groups ; by maintaining relationships between large-scale networks of ritual trading partners, far-flung Hopewell communities joined forces, supporting each other for years ; tended to reduce regional differences and promote contact and communication between discrete groups
Lascaux site, France
Cave art appeared at the bottom of a deep pit ; the artists clearly intended the art to be difficult to access, strongly suggesting a connection between the art and religion ; there are multiple theories about the cave art: * art-for-art's sake
Lewis-Williams suggests that the distribution of paintings throughout the cave parallels the stages of trances. He suggests that vision quests may have taken place in the deepest cave recesses
Richard Burger (Chavín cosmology)
Studied Chavin Cosmology
Chavin de Huantar is midway between the pacific coast and the Amazon lowlands
Argued that Chavin's religious leaders deliberately imported Amazonian symbolism perhaps in the belief that the lowland people had powerful knowledge
Robert Hall (Hopewell effigy pipes)
studied the Hopewell Effigy Pipes
David Lewis-Williams (cave art theory)
studied Upper Paleolithic Cave Art ; he questioned the art-for-art's sake perspective ; he argued that the approach fails to explain why artists chose such remote locations ; If the art was done in leisure time and for public enjoyment, why decorate remote and dangerous caves? ; he offers an alternate explanation of the art, arguing that the cave art is evidence of shamanic trances; he argued that these paintings were depictions of what was seen during the trances.
Argues that the UP art reflects humanity's effort to come to grips with the perception that their existence was not all that there was
Materialist Research--by maintain relationships between large-scale networks Hopewell communities joined economic forces
Mediate Interaction--by promoting a common set of symbols, reduced regional difference and promote contact and communication by discrete Hopewell groups
What are the different hypotheses that explain what Hopewell effigy pipes are used for?
* Lewis-Williams shamanic trances
* structuralism--used symbols to explain life's oppositions: male and female, nature and culture, human and supernatural, life and death
*images are totems, symbols of different clans
* sympathetic magic--promote hunting success, pregnancy, etc.
More difficult to explain because we have no ethnographic data
What are the different hypotheses that explain the meaning behind Upper Paleolithic cave art? Why is this more difficult to know than Hopewell cosmology and Chavín cosmology?
1. the climate was radically warmer and more humid during Chavin times. If so, then maybe the lowland complex of animals could have once lived in the highlands around Chavin de Huantar (iNCORRECT)
2. Immigrants from the tropical forest introduced the lowland plants and animals there (also probably incorrect)
3. Burger--Chavin's religious leaders deliberately imported Amazonian symbolism perhaps in the belief that the lowland people had powerful knowledge
What are the different hypotheses that account for the lowland floral and faunal aspects of Chavín cosmology?
critical archaeological theory
A critique of the modern social order that emphasizes exploitive class interests; it aims to change and not simply to understand society ; assumes that domination in some form is a central element of modern capitalist society
the study of human behavior through material remains whose interpretation is in some way affected by written history ; tends to lean towards post-processual ; tends to not study large scale processes, instead focusing on specific individuals or events ; favors studying disenfranchised groups ; tackles questions about the recent past that textbooks answer unfavorably ; many research the nature of European colonialism and its effects on indigenous peoples.
Began in 1931 at Mount Vernon (George Washington's home) ; was focused on architectural reconstruction ; before the 1980s few restored plantations addressed the issue of slavery ; Charles Fairbanks was the first to study it and set out to dispel myths concerning the biological and cultural inferiority of African Americans, which legitimized segregation and discrimination
African Burial Ground, New York
The bones of 427 enslaved africans were discovered beneath a parking lot in Downtown NYC ; On the eve of the American Revolution NYC had the largest population of enslaved africans of any english colonial city except Charleston SC ; 18th century NY law prohibited the burial of Africans in Manhattan churchyards so they established a cemetery on an empty piece of land near modern day wall street ; over the years this burial ground was built over and was only re-excavated during exploratory archaeological excavations required under US law to build on potentially historical land ; eventually a five year research program was planned headed by Michael Blakey, he discovered that half of the population they found died before age 12, with another peak in mortality between the ages of 15 and 20, some deaths were probably due to diseases but many were clearly worked to death. Both the men and women had enlarge muscles attachments (evidence of continual demands on their physical labor), lesions from torn muscles, and cranial and spinal fractures ; a prime example of how archaeology can recover "lost" history
Annapolis, Maryland Georgian gardens
backyard archaeology, excavating in basements and backyards, beneath parking lots, and pavements ; Leone tried to demonstrate the degree to which our history is constructed ; early British colonists in New England had a medieval mindset that encouraged group-oriented, corporate, and relatively undifferentiated lifestyle ; Leone developed the "Theory of Power" to explain the growth of Chesapeake Society under the European and American systems--a class structure had developed in which a few families of the gentry controlled most of the wealth, the rest of the population remained the same before and after the American Revolution ; formal gardens were an addition to wealthy households ; Leone argued that the formal Anglo-American gardens were built deliberately to demonstrate a knowledge of, and control over, the laws of nature
Little Bighorn Battlefield, Montana
When archaeologists systematically surveyed the battlefield they found plenty of artifacts. careful mapping of the artifacts, especially the cartridges and bullets, they ascertained the combat positions of both the Indians and the Soldiers ; the archaeologists determined that we don't know where Custer fought, only where he died, there was a lack of evidence of formal skirmish lines, which fit the Indian accounts of chaos and hand-to-hand fighting.
Monticello, Virginia & Mulberry Row
Thomas Jefferson's plantation ; the approach to the main house had 19 building which were the workshops and houses of Jefferson's slaves, hired laborers, artisans and indentured servants
* research done here was aimed at learning more about living and working conditions of Jefferson's slaves
Snee Farm, Charleston, South Carolina
rewriting history ; a small farm in the south ; Charles Pinckney's farm (not plantation because its small), a rice growing farm ; at least three structures for slave quarters, archaeological investigation in the 1980s when it was sold to a company building a neighborhood ; The people wanted the monument to glorify Charles but the National Park Service insisted that they include the slaves as well ; the main house was burned down and the new house was built on top and preserved the remains underneath it ; in the domestic slave quarters they found ceramic materials that were imported European wears that weren't part of the main house, it can be assumed that since there was an absentee owner there was less work, they were skilled laborers that they could get more money from, and they had the free time and ability to go and buy things that they wanted to buy.
had mixed feelings about slavery ; he had about 200 slaves at times and knew that without slave labor the agrarian economy of the day would collapse, but he regarded to institution of slavery as brutal and immoral, and favored its abolition ; reportedly did not mistreat his slaves, but he didn't think there could be a biracial society instead favoring plans to transport them back to Africa.
Sally & Critta Hemmings
Jefferson fathered six children with these house slaves
Studied the African Burial Ground in Manhattan ; a biological anthropologist ; concluded that the individuals at the burial ground had a lot of trauma during their lives and malnourishment and west-African dental modifications (suggests that some of the people were born in west Africa and only died in NY) ; he discovered that half of the population they found died before age 12, with another peak in mortality between the ages of 15 and 20, some deaths were probably due to diseases but many were clearly worked to death. Both the men and women had enlarge muscles attachments (evidence of continual demands on their physical labor), lesions from torn muscles, and cranial and spinal fractures.
Because even though we have documentary sources, these sources can be selective and biased ; prehistoric is much much older and usually have fewer living descendants
Why do archaeologists even study historical cultures and sites? How does this differ from prehistoric archaeology?
How do archaeologists work with the public when creating their research design and why?
They investigated disenfranchised groups, it gave insight into the enslaved African lives without the bias of their owners, it is some of the first direct and unbiased information about slaves because typically slaves weren't educated and couldn't read or write
What is the significance of the investigations at Mulberry Row, the African Burial Ground, and Snee Farm? How do the archaeological investigations at these sites challenge our previous knowledge of African American history?
* the Indian account of the battle is more accurate
* brutal chaos and hand-to-hand combat
* the finale took place not on Custer Hill as english painting suggest but rather in the ravine, where terrified soldiers were hunted down and killed
* Custer was moving confidently in an offensive tactical maneuver when he was caught off guard forcing a transition from offensive to defensive. Him and his men were rapidly surrounded and had no time to regroup and carry out formal tactical maneuvers. They clustered together tightly and fired against the Indians surrounding them.
What is the true story of the Battle of Little Bighorn?
Antiquities Act of 1906
1. requires federal permits before excavating or collecting artifacts on federal land
2. established a permitting process
3. gave the president the authority to create national monuments
Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA)
Passed in 1979
1. prohibits the excavation or removal of artifacts from federal property without a permit
2. prohibits the sale, exchange, or transport of artifacts acquired illegally from federal property
3. increased the penalties for violations of the act over those of the Antiquities Act.
working to benefit the societies
research to acquire the knowledge necessary to solve a specific, recognized problem
the application of archaeological and bioarchaeological knowledge for legal purposes ; the application of archaeological techniques to assist law enforcement
A skeleton discovered by James Chatters that was C-14 dated to be 9,000 years old and had an indeterminate race. Held from Native Americans as collateral and claimed by The Army Core of Engineers, Scientists, White Supremacists, & Tribes.
steal goods from an archaeological site for one's own gain
National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA)
Passed in 1966, this act created (1) the National Register of Historic Places, (2) the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, and (3) State Historic Preservation Offices, as well as (4) a process to mitigate the impact of development; it also requires that government agencies provide good stewardship of their cultural resources.
Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA)
Passed in 1990
1. protects Indian graves on federal and tribal lands
2. recognizes tribal authority over treatment of unmarked graves
3. prohibits the commercial selling of native dead bodies
4. requires an inventory and repatriation of human remains held by the federal government and institutions that receive federal funding
5. requires these same institutions to return inappropriately acquired sacred objects and other important communally owned property to native owners, and
6. sets up a process to determine ownership of human remains found on federal and tribal property after November 16, 1990.
Cultural Resource Management (CRM)
a professional field that conducts activities, including archaeology, related to compliance with legislation aimed at conserving cultural resources
physical features, both natural and artificial, associated with human activity, including sites, structures, and objects possessing significance in history, architecture, or human development. Cultural properties are unique and nonrenewable resources
the movement led by various Nazi leaders, archaeologists, & other scholars, such as Adolf Hitler & Heinrich Himmler, to research the German past in order to strengthen nationalism ; Gustaf Kossinna began it ; interest in prehistory reached to the highest reaches of the nazi political party.
pure (basic) science
systematic research directed toward acquisition of knowledge for its own sake
the return of someone or something to their own country or people
State Historic Preservation Offices
UNESCO Convention of 1970
This international agreement requires that signers create legislation and the administrative structure to
1. regulate the import and export of cultural objects
2. forbid their nations' museums from acquiring illegally exported cultural objects
3. establish ways to inform other nations when illegally exported objects are found within a country's borders 4. return or otherwise provide restitution of cultural objects stolen from public institutions, and
5. establish a register of art dealers and require them to register.
Bighorn Medicine Wheel
An ancient stone arrangement perched atop a 9640-goot windswept peak in Wyoming's Bighorn Mountains. There are quite a few medicine wheels in the mountains of the high plains, but the Bighorn Mountains site is by far the largest. ; we don't know what they were used for in prehistory, but presently they are used for ceremonies.
Studied by William Rathje ; began in Tucson AZ, they handed out surveys, went door to door asking about what people had thrown away ; He stratified randomly sampled households of various socioeconomic classes ; he did this to
Home St. Jean, Rwanda
For each legislation act listed do you know what it contributed to the preservation of archaeological resources in the United States?
money, personal gain
Why do people loot and sell artifacts and what drives this antiquities trade?
How does archaeology contribute to mass disasters?
mostly the national government
Who are the employers of archaeologists today?
Nazi archaeology...to try and promote racism and hate and discrimination
How can archaeology be misused? How can it contribute to today's societal issues?
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