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Clinical Methods Review Jeopardy: Chapters 7 and 8
Terms in this set (25)
Inappropriate communicative behaviors.
A misarticulated sound.
Behaviors that are given or produced in place of desirable or appropriate speech-language behaviors. Give an example.
Crying and whining, wiggling in the chair.
Behaviors that interrupt the treatment process.
Give an example.
In working to avoid an aversive stimuli the desired or target behavior increases in frequency because it terminates or avoids the aversive stimuli.
An aversive stimuli/event that follows a response and results in decreased frequency of responding.
The clinician's attention and physical touch is reinforcing and maintaining the interfering behavior. The client is being reinforced for wiggly behavior by attention and touch, increasing the interfering behavior. The desired response, producing the target response, may be aversive to the client because it would decrease the client's opportunity for reinforcement. Wiggling is a positively reinforced undesirable behavior.
In a speech-language treatment session the client is often out-of-seat or wiggly-in-seat. The clinician has confined the client to her chair with the agreement that once she has produced five picture cards she can get up. The clinician gives this 'promise' many times, yet the child continues to wiggle and the clinician frequently adjusts the child in her chair throughout the five card presentations. The rate of response to the stimuli does not go up. Why would this be? What would you recommend?
Not defined by effect on a behavior, but instead as a procedure that terminates a reinforcer for a response.
An increase in the response when reinforcement is withdrawn, typically followed later by a decreased response rate.
Differential Reinforcement of an incompatible behavior and extinction of the undesirable behavior. This combination is the best way to speed up extinction of an unwanted behavior.
In your clinic treatment session the child is being given reinforcement for in-seat behavior while out-of-seat behavior is being ignored. This is what?
1.) continuous schedule = easy; intermittent = difficult
2.) low density of R+/- = easy; heavily R+/- = difficult
3.) short period of R+/- = easy; long = difficult
4.) previously exposed to extinction = easy; first time = difficult
Which forms or characteristics of the following would speed-up the decrease in a response under extinction?
1.) reinforcement schedule
2.) amount of past R+/-
3.) Duration the response has been R+/-
4.) Previous exposure to extinction
Negative reinforcement of an undesirable behavior.
Level down the task or provide more supports for correct productions so that the child does not feel discouraged or that the trials are aversive.
The clinician can prevent or block escape, using the escape extinction procedure. Three components: continued presentation of trials, prevention of escape, & elimination of R-
Your child in therapy has been struggling to produce the 'skinny air' of an /s/. You keep at it, though, giving corrective feedback for tongue position. As you continue the child starts to get out of his chair and crawl under the table. What dynamic is at work here? What can you do to get back on track?
Type I punishment
Type II punishment
The presentation of a stimulus or event that decreases the response rate:
The withdrawal of a stimulus or event that decrease the response rate:
Forms: Verbal, Non-verbal, mechanical
Immediately after a response, the clinician provides a judgment as to the acceptability of the response.
Response Cost: Earn-and-lose
In a later stage of training, the clinician removes a token from a stack of tokens that the client has earned for correct responses throughout the training session each time the client produces her 'old' sound. This is:
Frozen moment - a form of Time-Out, specifically nonexclusion TO.
Contingent upon your client's production of her 'old' sound, the clinician imposes a brief period of no reinforcement; the clinician does not interact, the client is prohibited from responding, and no R+/- are forthcoming. This is:
Reacting with corrective feedback (punishment) to the earliest element of a chain of response.
Adding a visual cue that, in this case, ends up serving as a R+ following aversive stimuli.
In a treatment session, you are treating a /w/ for /r/ substitution. You choose to say 'stop' after the child produces the error sound in a word or even when you see that the child is rounding his/her lips to produce the error. The use of 'stop' is what? When you also hold up a stop sign that the child then grabs and starts playing with you have done what?
1.) Different responses are given to different stimuli.
2.) The temporary production of a recently learned response in different contexts/situations or production of a new response based on learning, that is not reinforced.
Providing reinforcement for the correct response to stimuli and the same response in the presence of other (wrong) stimuli is not reinforced (extinguished).
Discriminative stimulus. SD
A stimulus takes on the 'power' to evoke the correct response simply because it signals reinforcement.
The stimulus to which a response is not reinforced (typically because it is incorrect).
Concept of 'dog' has been learned through the process of generalizing and discriminating appropriately, based on the application of differential reinforcement.
A child has learned the response 'dog' to the clinic stimuli and to other dogs he encounters in his world, even those that are bigger or smaller than typical. He does not accidentally call cats, goats, or cows, 'dog'. What has happened? What would you call this?
Factorial Stimulus Generalization composed of: Physical Stimulus Generalization & Physical Setting Generalization. Possibly Audience Generalization.
Select stimuli from natural environments, vary audience-antecedent controls, vary physical setting controls, select multiple exemplars.
A child who is able to label picture cards of 'dogs' in session and then labels the dogs they see in the neighborhood at home has demonstrated what type of generalization? What can a clinician do to encourage this with stimuli or response considerations?
The verbal stimuli does not naturally elicit a present progressive construction.
The clinician might select a verbal stimuli prompt that provides a partial model of the target construction and would be closer to the natural stimuli. Ex. 'What is happening here?'
A clinician is training present progressive with a child in the clinic setting. The clinician presents a picture and says 'what happened here?' to which the client responds 'he jumped'. This is counted as an error. The clinician continues but can't seem to get the target response. What might be the problem? What can/could the clinician do?
The clinician should have progressed to an intermittent/variable reinforcement schedule.
The clinician could have trained multiple exemplars and various levels of response topographies.
The clinician also could have used a variety of common verbal antecedents to elicit the target, as well as managing stimuli, response, and consequences to plan for maintenance.
As the clinician moved the client through the typical stages of treatment, baserate, establishment, stabilization, and generalization, he gave the child a reinforcer on a F5 schedule for all correct productions in strict treatment trials: present picture card, prompt with 'what's happening'. The child has reached 90% accuracy, yet, the parent reports no change in the behavior at home. What could be the problem?
Teaching self-control procedures
You have taught your client to given themselves a sticker for every correct answer. What is this?
Training significant others in contingency management.
You have written the following goal, "The parent will verbally acknowledge understanding of the target behavior, evidencing correct discrimination of the child's production by offering R+ appropriately in the clinic session with 95% accuracy."
What is this?
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